What am I looking at?

What am I looking at?

Postby Richard Scott » Sun Apr 04, 2010 6:53 pm

Could someone please help me identify what I am looking at in the following photos.
The first two are of a specimen found over the last couple of days, I believe it may be a pleurotus.
what is this 1.jpg
what is this 1.jpg (90.28 KiB) Viewed 12708 times

what is this 2.jpg
what is this 2.jpg (112.86 KiB) Viewed 12709 times


The 3rd & 4th are taken of a field mushroom found in Tesco, is this the spores I am looking at?
If it is the size seems to be too small for A. campestris they averaged around 4.5um
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what is this 3.jpg
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Richard Scott » Sun Apr 04, 2010 6:54 pm

what is this 4.jpg
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Neil » Sun Apr 04, 2010 7:58 pm

Hello Richard,
Unfortunately, I cannot help you with your first fungus as you have not included a photo of the fruiting body, nor have you included a shot of the spores which are quite distinctive. I believe you are trying to show us gill edge cystidia in the first shot, but Pleurotus spp. do not have any as far as I know - yours may just be broken hyphae.

The second shot shows hyphae with clamp connections at the septa, but you do not say if from the gills, cap cuticle, or stem. If from the cap cuticle, then this may well be a Pleurotus sp. but we still need to see the spores.

Again, with shot 3 and 4 - yes they are spores and look like Agaricus spores, but that is the only microscopical feature shown.
Assuming you have calculated the stage micrometer correctly, 4.5um would be small for A. campestris or indeed any other of the common Agaricus spp.

By the way, what do you mean exactly "....... field mushroom found in Tesco" ? This is open to many interpretations. (eg. off the shelf, off the floor in a damp corner, in the car park) ?

Neil.
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Richard Scott » Sun Apr 04, 2010 8:08 pm

I could not find any spores in photo's 1 and 2, there are pictures of the actual species in What is it. The pictures came from the gill edge.
The mushroom came from Tesco's veg counter and we are about to eat them for our supper.
I am an absolute beginner at microscopy and I am not testing just asking for help.
Richard
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Leif Goodwin » Sun Apr 04, 2010 8:13 pm

I suspect that Richard is confusing A. campestris with A. bisporus, which is the species to which the cultivated mushroom belongs. Easily done. A. campestris cannot as far as I know be cultivated, and anyway I have never considered it particularly good eating. But I digress. I generally find that I have to search over quite a bit of the fungus tissue before I find something distinctive. It is all too easy to get broken hyphae, and not always easy to find the gill edge, which is often the most interesting part. And this involved scanning the specimen, and often racking the focus back and forth until something pops into view.

Richard, if you want a nice fungus to examine, try Pluteus cervinus. I am always impressed by the cystidia. With A. bisporus (aka 'Agaricus tescoii'), you should be able to view basidia with attached spores. Isn't it 2 spored? I found that using tweezers to pull of a bit from the gill edge did the trick. Well, after a few tries. It can be tricky, but rewarding once you succeed. (Gordon Dickson recommended to me Macrocystidia cucumis as a good one for cystidia. I wonder why? :mrgreen: )
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Chris Johnson » Mon Nov 15, 2010 1:16 pm

I was about to start a new thread called "What am I looking at" but find Richard has got there first, so I will just join in.
Recent requests for determination has left me believing I am not always describing correctly what I am looking at. I will attempt to name the microscopic detail in question and welcome correction.
Here is the first:
The long projection I have as a cheilocystidium. The numerous round-head structures as paracystidia.
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Andreas Gminder » Mon Nov 15, 2010 3:29 pm

Hello,

if the foto shows the gill edge and not another place from the gills, then it is a cheilocystidium. Otherwise it would be a pleurocystidium.

The clavate or roundish cells are in my eyes yound basidia (also named basidioles). I have not heared the name "paracystidia" before.

best regards,
Andreas
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Chris Johnson » Mon Nov 15, 2010 4:56 pm

Yes, the gill edge. Learned something already.

Paracystidium came from "The Genus Lactarius" by Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, page 18.

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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Chris Johnson » Mon Nov 15, 2010 5:16 pm

Two images from the pellis.
1. What is the round-headed structure?
2. Is the small spur on the central hypha of any diagnostic significance?
Thanks.
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Re: What am I looking at?

Postby Roy Betts » Thu Nov 18, 2010 11:36 am

Chris,
Cheilocystidia are on the gill edge (margin); pleurocystidia are on the gill face. Species may have both, either or no cystidia.
Gill edges can be sterile (no basidia), fertile (basidia only) or heterogenous (mixed! eg: some Entoloma's have basidia and cheilocystidia). Basidioles are young basidia (without the 'prongs') and can be mistaken for cheilocystidia especially in some Genera (eg: some Lepiota species) where the size & shape may be similar.
Gill edge cells (that are not spore bearing) may be of more than one basic shape or type and be called various names by different authors describing different genera:
Hence, Kits van Waveren describing Psathyrella species calls 'true' cheilocystidia - "pleurocystidioid cheilocystidia" because they resemble the shape of the pleurocystidia. In addition there are often present along the gill edge, more or less clavate cells which he names "spheropedunculate cells".
In Kuyper's book on Inocybe, these clavate cells are called "paracystidia" to distinguish them from the 'true' cheilocystidia which are differently shaped and have crystals at the apex (metuloid).
With the volume on Lactarius which you mention, the 'true' cystidia are called "cheilomacrocystidia" to distinguish them from smaller gill edge cells that they also call "paracystidia". From this book, I note that some Lactarius have sterile gill edges with both cheilomacrocystidia and paracystidia while other species have heterogenous gill edges consisting of cheilomacrocystidia and basidia: so, your image of a gill edge could show either basidioles or paracystidia.
Your 2nd. image of a cap cuticle. I would think the spur is the beginning of a hyphae branching (but I'm not a microbiologist!). The round headed structure could be a cap cystidium (depending on what species we are looking at - some species do not have cap cystidia). Sometimes the structure of the cuticle is different from the lower layers of the cap (the trama); also, if the fungus has a veil this may have a different structure to the cuticle. Indeed, the veil itself may be composed of elements of more than one shape (eg: some 'Coprinus' species).
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