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RED LISTS OF THREATENED SPECIES

 

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Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi,

based on national and local database records, fruit body

morphology, and microscopic anatomy

Conforming to:
the Guidelines for using IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria,
Version 11 (February 2014)
and IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Second Edition
by:
Doreen Bailey, John Bailey, Keith Davies, Val Davies, Lee Hayward, Paul Nichol
Project manager: Michael Jordan, Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor

Copyright: The Fungus Conservation Trust 2015
Registered Charity

 

The Fungus Conservation Trust
2015 Species Status: Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi, based on national and local database records, fruit body morphology, and microscopic anatomy.

Project development team:
Doreen Bailey: Chair, North Somerset and Bristol Fungus Group
John Bailey: Recorder, North Somerset and Bristol Fungus Group
Keith Davies: Chair, Dean Fungus Group
Val Davies: Recorder, Dean Fungus Group
Lee Hayward: Chair, Cotswold Fungus Group
Paul Nichol: Chair, Cumbria Fungus Group (former Chair, Notts. Fungus Group)
Michael Jordan: Project manager; CATE2 senior manager; Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor
This publication should be cited as:
D. Bailey, J. Bailey, K. Davies, V. Davies, L. Hayward, M. Jordan, & P. Nichol, 2015. Red List of Fungi for Great Britain: Geastrum, Myriostoma, Sphaerobolus, Bankera, Boletopsis, Hydnellum, Phellodon, Sarcodon, Cantharellus, Craterellus, Pseudocraterellus, Dentipellis, Hericium, Laxitextum, Battarrea, Bovista, Lycoperdon, Piptoporus, Tulostoma.

 

 

Contents:
1. Background and introduction to this Review page 4
2. Taxonomic scope and nomenclature page 5
3. Data preparation page 6
4. Methods: rationale page 7
5. Methods: application of IUCN Criterion D page 11
6. Methods: data deficient or not adequately evaluated page 12
7. Results: summary of conservation assessments page 13
8. Results: assessments for RDL taxa. (omitting LC) page 16
9. Site Protection and Threats page 39
10. Recommendations for future recording of RDL species page 39
11. Acknowledgements page 39
12. References page 40

 

1. Background of fungus Red Data listing in the UK
Hitherto there have been three fungal red-listing exercises in Great Britain (GB). The first of these historic Red Data Lists (RDLs) was "A Provisional Red Data List of British Fungi" (Ing 1992) that expressed levels of risk using the IUCN categories available at the time, and was based on data from "foray lists, herbarium and literature sources, and through discussion with experienced field mycologists". The second was an online list entitled "Preliminary Assessment: The Red Data List of Threatened British Fungi" (Evans et al. 2006). This project covered GB and the Isle of Man, again applying IUCN categories, and was compiled on behalf of the British Mycological Society (BMS). Neither of these lists followed the criteria and guidelines laid down by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) for quality assuring regional RDLs. Hence they did not achieve formal status.
Subsequently a third Red Data list of limited taxonomic scope, "Red List of Fungi from Great Britain: Boletaceae" (Ainsworth et. al 2013) was prepared, and was subsequently approved as a formal assessment.
Although Evans et. al (2006) covered a wide spectrum of taxa, their contribution was not accepted by JNCC unless considerably more work was carried out. This additional work did not materialise. As was pointed out by Ainsworth et al. (2013), publication of further RDLs also opens the way to revision and development of partly-completed fungus conservation enterprises, including Sites of Special Scientific Interest, and Important Fungus Areas (Evans et. al. 2001).
There is now a pressing need for further assessment of fungus taxa with the objective of expanding Red Data listing, and with this in mind the current assessment has been prepared.
Footnote: The current Assessment was copied to the Senior Biodiversity Manager, UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), on 23rd August 2015. The Trust has since received no substantive response to the Assessment. The Trust has, however, been placed under constraint to engage in what may be interpreted as a consentual compromise with data sources known and evidenced to be extensively flawed. The Trust believes that to acquiesce to a constraint of this nature, resulting in 'mish-mash' changes to the substance of the Assessment, would be both mischievous and detrimental, and would run contrary to the best interests of the mycota that the Trust is committed, as a charity, to conserve.
An overview of the issue is contained in a Report, which is available on request.

 

2. Taxonomic scope and nomenclature
The subject of the current conservation assessment, managed by the Fungus Conservation Trust (formerly the Association of British Fungus Groups), is not limited to genera within a single family, but encompasses a more diverse spectrum. Fruit bodies of the genera selected do not display uniform morphologies. Some are in the typical 'mushroom' form of a fleshy cap surmounting a stalk, bearing an underlying layer of gills or spines. Others fruit as 'brackets', or as 'puffballs'. The genera were selected on the assumption that they have been fairly well recorded, where they occur across the extent of the British Isles, and that they include one or more potentially Red Data category species.
The taxonomic hierarchy found in the CATE2 UK database follows that of the Index/Species Fungorum throughout. A full list of the genera under consideration can be found by traversing the taxonomic hierarchy of this resource for the most up-to-date taxon versions. We have not pursued earlier reliance on the Checklist of Fungi of the British Isles (GBCHKLST) since this is believed to be increasingly out-of-date with regard to species new to Britain. The practical experience of our team suggests that a.k.a. The British Checklist tends not to be maintained as regularly and to the same extent as the IF/SF:
<http://cate.abfg.org>

 

The genera currently assessed are: Geastrum, Myriostoma, Sphaerobolus, Bankera, Boletopsis, Hydnellum, Phellodon, Sarcodon, Cantharellus, Craterellus, Pseudocraterellus, Dentipellis, Hericium, Laxitextum, Battarrea, Bovista, Lycoperdon, Piptoporus, Tulostoma.
The assessed taxa are named according to the current nomenclature found in the IF/SF. Notwithstanding the comments above, they are also included in the GBCHKLST. 80* species have been recorded in Great Britain, and are within the scope of the current assessment. (* one species has been provisionally re-assigned). It includes summary details only for taxa of Least Concern (LC).
Other names not meeting the criteria for assessed taxa can be found in national databases, but are excluded. These are mostly names of uncertain application or synonyms and include: Geastrum britannicum, G. bryantii var. minor, G. campestre, G. coronatum ß woodwardii, G. fornicellum, G. pseudolimbatum, G. stellatum, G. umbilicatus, G. umbilicatus var. smithii, Boletopsis leucomelaena, Hydnellum compactum, H. cumulatum, H. mirabile, H. velutinum, Phellodon atratus, Sarcodon fuligineoviolaceus, S. joeides, S. leucopus, S. regalis, S. versipellis, Cantharellus fissilis, C. helvelloides, C. hypnorum, C. replexus, C. replexus var. devexus, C. viscosus, Hericium abietis, H. alpestre, Bovista olivacea, B. pusilla, Lycoperdon acariforme, L. ardosiacum, L. candidum, L. cinereum, L. cruciatum, L. cylindricum, L. defossum, L. echiniforme, L. epiphyllum, L. formicatum, L. gibbosum, L. globosum, L. gossypinum, L. hydrophorum, L. lambinonii, L. parasiticum, L. perlatum var. lacunosum, L. pertusum, L. proteus, L. radiatum, L. radicatum, L. rufum, L. tessellatum.

 

3. Data preparation
The current assessment has analysed UK national fungus records up to and including December 2014, drawn principally from the CATE2 database managed by the Fungus Conservation Trust (formerly the Association of British Fungus Groups), with some additional records supplied initially by the British Mycological Society*, and/or extracted from the FRDBI. Further record sets were obtained directly from the National Trust, the RSPB, and from several local Environmental Record Centres. The CATE2 database currently holds in excess of 1.4 million cleaned and corrected UK fungus records, drawn from approx. 2 million extant records, many of which, on examination, were found to be unusable on account of extensive replication, with the added problem of omission of essential elements from the data. We also encountered multiple instances erroneous grid referencing. These have been rectified wherever possible.
*The British Mycological Society declined collaboration over the current Red Data assessment. Any missing records were therefore extracted and/or supplied through other agencies and are considered to be comprehensive. The CATE2 database was recognised by all parties to the 2013 Red Data assessment of Boletaceae, to be the most accurate source of data and these data were subsequently incorporated into the evidence tables.
All records that form part of the current assessment were cleaned by the same management team (again involving standardisation of terminology, removal of replicates that may show on other databases, correction and/or insertion of place names, and many corrections of grid co-ordinates). After cleaning and incorporation of records from the various UK sources listed above there are currently ca. 48,000 records held in CATE2 for the selected genera.
These data have been incorporated into evidence tables, containing recording dates, site details including geo-references, and wherever so noted, fruit body abundance data. Site geo-references are all in the form of Ordnance Survey co-ordinates, which are increasingly derived from GPS data. In instances where a geo-reference was not supplied by the original recorder, but details of place name were noted, a co-ordinate has been generated from place name details to provide a 'best estimate' . In certain instances this may be misleading when an 6-figure OSGB reference is placed directly over the site name of e.g. a small farm or individual property. We have attempted, wherever possible, to cross-reference such potential inaccuracies against online resources principally < https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/osmaps/>. We have further applied the extensive analytical functions available to recorders and other registered users in CATE2.

 

4. Methods: rationale
The aim of red-listing is to categorise taxa to show those which are at greatest risk of extinction, and to provide an assessment of the relative degrees of threat they face. RDLs can then be used to prioritise conservation action to improve the chances of survival for at least some of the most threatened taxa in the long term. Taxa assigned to three of the IUCN Red List categories: Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU) are regarded as threatened. The IUCN criteria represent the accepted method of producing Red Lists, both globally and regionally (IUCN 2012a, b, 2013). Five criteria are used to assign a taxon to the appropriate IUCN Red List category:
Criterion A: Population size reduction
Criterion B: Geographic range in the form of extent of occurrence (EOO) or area of occupancy
(AOO) coupled with other factors including fragmentation, decline and extreme fluctuations.
Criterion C: Small population size and decline.
Criterion D: Very small or restricted population.
Criterion E: Quantitative analysis, indicating the probability of extinction in the wild.
Most of the fungi assessed here are organisms that remain hidden for most of their lives, revealing their whereabouts briefly when they emerge to fruit. Exceptions are the fruits of some bracket fungi that persist visibly for more than a single season on a host. Although it is the fruiting stage that forms the basis of all our historic records, each individual fungus generally exists as a network (mycelium) of microscopic tubes (hyphae) both within and sometimes connecting between its food sources. Mycorrhizal species are spatially constrained insofar as their mycelia are tethered to living roots of their plant partners (usually trees) where nutrient exchanges occur, vital to the health of both symbionts. In general terms the mycelium of species assessed is difficult to culture and manipulate in the laboratory, and the underground detection and enumeration of non-fruiting genotypes in natural environments is a relatively new line of research, largely driven by innovations in molecular ecology. Consequently, insufficient data have accumulated for use in population modelling methods such as population viability analysis, and so there is currently no possibility of using Criterion E for fungi.
The use of Criteria A–C requires an assessment of population decline, observed or projected. Changes in the distribution of fungal fruiting (mapped grid references of records) over time initially seemed to offer the most plausible route for the investigation of possible population decline in fungi. Consequently, a preliminary investigation was carried out to compare the fruiting populations recorded over two time intervals, Jan 1915-Dec. 1964, and Jan. 1965-Dec. 2014. This emulated a similar analysis was carried out by Ainsworth et. al. (2013), involving a monad-based comparison of records between two 50-year recording periods (Jan. 1913–Dec. 1962 and Jan. 1963–Dec. 2012). For each species considered in this preliminary investigation, the chosen proxy measure of its extant GB population was the total number of occupied 1 km OS grid squares (monads) recorded over the last 50 years. This was compared with a corresponding measure of the extant population as it existed 50 years ago.
The procedure described above, however, appears to serve scarcely more purpose that to highlight the upsurge during approximately the last 30 years, in recording effort and database usage.

It should be noted that none of the taxa assessed in the current analysis fall into the Extinct category. Extinction assessment employed by Ainsworth et. al. (2013) applied the rolling value of "not found over the last 50 years despite appropriate searching". Based on this interpretation, all mycelia whose fruit bodies have been recorded at any time within the last 50 years should therefore be regarded as extant at the time of assessment (unless their habitat has been destroyed).

 

The principal drawback to making a realistic assessment based on comparison of 2 x 50 year periods lies in that a greater number of unique site and date records for many species have appeared in the national databases in the last 30 years than in all the last 100 years put together. It is clear that recent increased recording activity has masked any decline in the fruiting populations of many species. Indeed it has been speculated that those species showing only modest increases in records during recent years relative to those of an 'average species' listed could be experiencing a decline in their actual populations. As with Ainsworth et. al. (2013), comparative methods designed to reveal such species were considered and rejected for the present assessment because the available databases do not hold null records (documentation of site visits resulting in no records of the target species). Regardless of time intervals adopted, an absence of records in the second recording period would mean that we simply cannot tell from the available data whether a species fruiting population recorded during the first period is now no longer alive, or whether it has simply not been adequately surveyed recently. This scenario has not been encountered with the genera surveyed in the current list. However, where hitherto a taxon may have been listed as Extinct, but has been recorded again in recent times, we have opted generally (though not exclusively) to categorise it as Data Deficient until further investigation permits more realistic assessment.
When considering Criterion B, for most of the taxa included in this assessment records are sufficiently widespread that the area of their EOO (Extent of Occurrence) polygon(s) exceeds the thresholds of all the IUCN threatened categories. For none of the taxa in this assessment do we currently have any substantive evidence of either population decline or extreme fluctuations, meaning that only (a) of the sub-criteria for Criterion B can currently be applied. We cannot apply sub-criteria (b) or (c). It will require not only a radical change of monitoring protocol applied by field recorders, but also an extended period of fresh monitoring before there is any likelihood of Criterion B being applicable as a basis of assessment. With these limitations in view we have also been obliged to discard AOO (Area of Occupancy) as an assessment tool until such time as at least two of the sub-criteria can be applied.
For the time being we are limited to application of Criterion D and the assessment of overall population size. In this respect we have emulated the approach employed in JNCC Species Status 14 (A.M. Ainsworth et. al.)

 

5. Methods: application of IUCN Criterion D
As a preliminary to the application of Criterion D, all extant UK records for the 50 year period from 1965 to 2014 inclusive, were assembled from various sources, both national and regional, within the CATE2 database, and were then scrutinised at length by the team in order to re solve any missing grid references, correct erroneous grid references, and remove replicate records that had previously escaped detection. The team is satisfied, that at the end of the exercise, the records of the species under consideration are accurately presented, and have been cleared of anomalies.
Dahlberg & Mueller (2011) reviewed the literature regarding genet* size in terrestrial macrofungi, and concluded that, for those species lacking fairy rings or specialised bundles of exploratory hyphae (rhizomorphs or mycelial cord systems), each genet was generally less than 10m. in diameter. Furthermore, they proposed that each genet comprised "(2–)10 mature individuals (ramets) depending on the distribution of sporocarps [fruit bodies]". By way of explanation, Dahlberg & Mueller (2011) considered that isolated solitary fruit bodies "should be counted as two mature individuals" whereas for those species producing "scattered, sparse to gregarious"
fruit bodies, the recommendation was that con-specific fruit bodies separated by up to 10 m (one genet) should be counted as 10 mature individuals (ramets) for red-listing purposes. Dahlberg & Mueller's (2011) pragmatic approach, incorporating what they regarded as conservative assumptions, was incorporated in the IUCN (2013) guidelines for "diffuse organisms": "For diffuse organisms, not wholly visible, in continuous habitats (e.g. subterranean mycelial fungi) assessors may assume that each recorded presence separated by a minimum distance represents an assumed number of individuals. For example, each visible fruiting body may be assumed to represent 10 mature individuals, so long as they are separated by at least 10 metres. This kind of assumption is necessary because the size or area of a fungal mycelium is rarely known".
* A clonal colony of genetically identical individuals.

Most terrestrial macrofungi produce "scattered, sparse to gregarious" fruit bodies. Therefore, following the IUCN (2013) guidelines would mean that, for example, if one fruit body was found under an oak with a group of four conspecific fruit bodies occurring 12 m away and a further pair growing 10 m further from those, the population would be conservatively assumed to consist of 30 mature individuals (ramets) for red-listing purposes regardless of the number of other conspecific fruiting patches occurring directly in between.
It is noted by Ainsworth et. al. (2013), that fungal records are almost always casually generated, and are usually made in an attempt to boost the numbers of taxa recorded within a particular geographical boundary such as a site or county. The resulting records have tended historically to omit documentation of fruiting abundance, although this omission is now increasingly being remedied through incorporation of mandatory completion of cells in the online/offline CATE2 database recording modules. Absence of abundance details, however, hampers the assessment of numbers and spacing of discrete fruiting patches. Where terrestrial fruit body abundance information is available in the CATE2 national database, it falls into a number of categories, from 'one or two specimens', to 'several fruit bodies', to 'massed in large numbers'.
Further advice requested from Anders Dahlberg is that although values of less than 10 mature individuals can be applied under certain circumstances, it is wise to use a standard proxy as far as possible, and to err on the conservative side rather than the other way around. In Scandinavia, Dahlberg advises that, in principle, only the proxy of 10 is used for number of mature individuals per discrete fruiting patch (genet). We have followed this advice.

Criterion D applies to extant populations and therefore, following the rationale outlined in Section 4, estimates of extant mature individuals (ramets) for the 2015 assessment were obtained from compilations of the last 50 years' recording data for each taxon considered.
Applying Criterion D, the following thresholds were used to assign taxa to the three threatened categories:
CR D: <5 discrete fruiting patches representing <50 mature individuals
EN D: 5–24 discrete fruiting patches representing 50–240 (<250) mature individuals
VU D1: 25–99 discrete fruiting patches representing 250–990 (<1,000) mature individuals
IUCN defines a taxon as Near Threatened (NT) when it does not qualify for threatened status, but is close to qualifying or is likely to qualify in the near future. Therefore we assumed:
NT: 100–110 discrete fruiting patches representing 1,000–1,100 mature individuals and hence
the category of Least Concern (LC) is defined thus: LC: >110 discrete fruiting patches representing >1,100 mature individuals (Criterion D2 not met).

 

6. Methods: Data deficient (DD)
A small number of the taxa considered in this assessment are assigned to the Data Deficient (DD)
category. These include recently described species such as Dentipellis fragilis. Although first described in 1962, the extant GB records date largely from 2006/2007 in only three counties
It therefore remains a relatively poorly understood taxon, and is likely to have been historically overlooked and/or misidentified in Britain. It is therefore assessed as DD due to taxonomic uncertainty regarding British records, and insufficient information being available to place it in another category.
In accordance with IUCN (2013) guidelines, DD has also been used for taxa where there are few
known sites and the taxonomic concept, at least as understood in Britain, appears to have been subject to historic confusion. The DD assessment has been employed for example with Hydnellum auratile . Many records applied to this taxon in the past have now been attributed to H. aurantiacum. Those records that are still applied to H. auratile remain the subject of critical scrutiny, and until further investigation is carried out, must be considered of dubious accuracy.

7. Results: summary of conservation assessments
Of the 80 (-1*) accepted GB species included in the current assessment, 48 (61%) are now considered to be on the Red List (CR, EN, VU, NT, DD) with the following breakdown by category:
EX 00 00%
CR 09 11.5%
EN 09 11.5%
VU 21 26%
NT 04 05%
LC 32 40%
DD 5 06%
NE 00 00%
Total 80 100%
Red-listed taxa by category:
CR: Boletopsis perplexa; Bovista paludosa; Geastrum berkeleyi; Geastrum corollinum ; Geastrum elegans; Geastrum minimum; Myriostoma coliforme; Tulostoma fimbriatum; Tulostoma niveum
EN: Bankera violascens; Bovista limosa; Cantharellus friesii; Cantharellus melanoxeros; Geastrum floriforme; Geastrum lageniforme; Geastrum quadrifidum; Lycoperdon caudatum; Lycoperdon decipiens
VU: Battarrea phalloides; Bovista aestivalis; Cantharellus ferruginascens; Craterellus lutescens; Geastrum coronatum; Geastrum fornicatum; Geastrum pectinatum; Geastrum schmidelii; Hericium coralloides; Hydnellum aurantiacum; Hydnellum caeruleum; Hydnellum cumulatum; Hydnellum ferrugineum; Laxitextum bicolor; Lycoperdon dermoxanthum; Lycoperdon mammiforme; Lycoperdon umbrinum; Phellodon confluens; Sarcodon glaucopus; Sarcodon scabrosus; Tulostoma melanocyclum
NT: Bankera fuligineoalba; Cantharellus amethysteus; Geastrum rufescens; Hydnellum scrobiculatum
DD: Dentipellis fragilis; Hydnellum auratile; Hydnellum gracilipes; Lycoperdon atropurpureum; Lycoperdon ericaeum

8. Results: assessments for RDL taxa. (omitting LC)

 

Bankera fuligineoalba (J.C. Schmidt) Coker & Beers
Previous assessment: EN (1992); Annex (2006)
2015 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1240
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 121 unique geo-referenced sites (1210 mature individuals) plus 30+ fruit bodies recorded at one site (assumed to span 30m. and therefore represents 30 mature individuals). A small population (Criterion D) assessed as NT.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the taxon is ectomycorrhizal with Pinus sylvestris, and is mainly restricted to native pine forest, and coniferous plantations in the Scottish Highlands. It is also, however, recorded in various other forested and afforested sites in Scotland where P. sylvestris occurs. It is associated with a microhabitat including banks, pathways, tracksides, verges that are subject to a variety of threats that include trampling, compaction by vehicles, track maintenance, felling of host trees, and eutrophication. Detailed records date from approx. 1900. The bulk of records have arisen since 2000, and derive mainly from the Inverness/Easterness (Abernethy Forest and Rothiemurchus), followed by Perthshire (Black Wood of Rannoch).
By strictly following numerical limits under Criterion D, this species would have been assessed as being of Least Concern. However, I refer to the IUCN Red List Guidelines (2014): "Numerical thresholds are given more by way of example and are not intended to be interpreted as strict thresholds." Records indicate restricted distribution of this species in the Scottish Highlands, and we have opted to err on the side of caution, assessing it as Near Threatened.

 

Bankera violascens (Alb. & Schwein.) Pouzar
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 130
Estimated population: 1- 10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals) plus 30+ fruit bodies recorded at two distinct sites (each assumed to span 30m. and therefore represents 30 mature individuals. A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D.
Ectomycorrhizal with Picea spp., the taxon is associated with a microhabitat including banks, pathways, tracksides, and verges that are subject to a variety of threats. These include trampling, compaction by vehicles, track maintenance, felling of host trees, and eutrophication.
Scottish Highland recording has gathered pace in the last 20 years. We surmise that it is improbable such a distinctive species would have gone un-noticed at other potential sites, and that its occurrence is genuinely restricted. We are therefore reluctant to categorise it as Data Deficient.


Battarrea phalloides (Dicks.) Pers.
Previous assessment: EN (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 770
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 77 unique geo-referenced sites (770 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species at the northern limit of its range, associated with warm, free-draining sandy soils, principally in East Anglia, but now also known from a variety of other sites in the south and southwest of England. Although its known range is now greater than was previously thought, it remains associated with marginal land including hedgerows, roadside verges and tracksides that are vulnerable to damage. Ongoing threats include habitat destruction, disturbance at roadsides, principally due to excavation, changes of road layout, tipping etc. Site monitoring is taking place.

 

Boletopsis perplexa Watling & J. Milne
Previous assessment: VU (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as CR D.
Uniquely associated with Pinus sylvestris with which it is ectomycorrhizal, and known from 4 sites in Inverness/Easterness and Aberdeenshire (south). these include Rothiemurchus, Loch an Eilein, Inver and Inverey. Some earlier records were misidentified, and were formerly entered in national databases as Boletopsis leucomelaena.
Scottish Highland recording has gathered pace in the last 20 years. We surmise that it is improbable such a distinctive species would have gone un-noticed at other potential sites, and that its occurrence is genuinely restricted. We are therefore reluctant to categorise it as Data Deficient. Biodiversity Action Plan species.


Bovista aestivalis (Bonord.) Demoulin
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 290
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 29 unique geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
The species is predominantly, but not exclusively, associated with fixed dune grasslands, dune slacks, and coastal heaths. The database shows widely scattered records from the south of England to the Scottish Highlands. Principal threats include erosion and inappropriate sand dune management.

 

Bovista limosa Rostr.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 120
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 12 unique geo-referenced sites (120 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D
The species is predominantly associated with fixed dune grasslands, dune slacks, and coastal heaths. Not recorded in Scotland. Principal threats include erosion and inappropriate sand dune management.

 

Bovista paludosa Lév.
Previous assessment: EX (1992); EN B (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 2 adjacent but unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as CR D
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, associated with fens and upland flushes, it has possibly recovered from the verge of extinction in one restricted area. It has not been recorded since 1944 at sites where it was formerly fruiting in East Anglia, but it was recorded in 2005 on 2 adjacent sites on wet heath in Westmorland. These have been vulnerable to inappropriate management that has not taken account of the fragile microhabitat in which it grows. The taxon is threatened in 3 out of the 9 countries in its range that have official published Red Lists. Threats to the sites include changes to groundwater regimes; eutrophication; peat extraction; creation of open water areas; trampling of moorland flushes.

 

Cantharellus amethysteus (Quél.) Sacc.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 780
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 78 unique geo-referenced sites (780 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as NT.
Predominantly restricted to the southern part of England where it is recorded in mixed and broadleaf woodlands. The largest concentration of records comes from the Forest of Dean. It has been recorded in Scotland but only very occasionally. Principal threats include air pollution, soil compaction, eutrophication, felling of host trees and vegetation overgrowth. If strictly following the numerical limits under Criterion D, this species would have been assessed as VU. However, I refer to the IUCN Red List Guidelines (2014): "Numerical thresholds are given more by way of example and are not intended to be interpreted as strict thresholds." Records indicate that the species is so widespread across southern England, especially in the Forest of Dean, that we have assessed it as Near Threatened rather than Vulnerable.

 

Cantharellus ferruginascens P.D. Orton
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 280
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 28 unique geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
Apparently restricted to calcareous soils in mixed deciduous woodlands. Occurs chiefly in the southern parts of England and Wales. Isolated records have also been obtained in the Scottish Highlands, and as far north as Sutherland. We do not, however, consider that the 2006 assessment of Near Threatened is adequate. Principal threats include air pollution, soil compaction, eutrophication, felling of host trees and vegetation overgrowth.

 

Cantharellus friesii Quél.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); VU B (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D (CR acc to JNCC 2010)
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, which occurs in beech and mixed woodlands, with which it is possibly mycorrhizal. Acc. to JNCC (2010) it had then shown a 50% hectad decline pre- and post-1960. However, although the records reflect a small number of locations, there is no clear evidence, based on today's records, of decline or extreme fluctuation. The species has been recorded from a small number of sites, principally at the Birks of Aberfeldy in Scotland, but also in England as far south as Gloucestershire. Principal threats include air pollution, soil compaction, eutrophication, felling of host trees and vegetation overgrowth.

 

Cantharellus melanoxeros Desm.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 18 unique geo-referenced sites (180 mature individuals), plus 30+ fruit bodies recorded at one site, and therefore represents 30 mature individuals. A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species endemic to Europe, the taxon was not recorded in Britain prior to 1982 (stubbs Wood, Hampshire). It has now been recorded, albeit rarely, as far north as Black Wood of Rannoch. It occurs in mixed and broadleaf woodlands where it typically appears in fused clusters, associated chiefly with Fagus spp. and Quercus spp. at altitudes below 150 metres. Chief threats include air pollution, soil compaction, eutrophication, and felling of host trees.

 

Craterellus lutescens (Fr.) Fr.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 500
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 50 unique geo-referenced sites (500 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D.
Many of the older records of this species have appeared under the synonym Cantharellus aurora. Chiefly recorded from the Scottish Highlands, it has also been found at a limited number of sites in England and Wales as far south as Devon and Cornwall. It may have also been under-recorded resulting from confusion with C. tubaeformis. However, without any clear evidence of this, we consider that it should be assessed as vulnerable.

 

Dentipellis fragilis (Pers.) Donk
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as DD.
This is a membranous, toothed, but fairly inconspicuous lignicolous species, first described in 1962 by M.A. Donk, which can be assumed to be frequently overlooked by recorders. It was claimed by Pegler, Roberts and Spooner as recently as 1997 (British Chanterelles and Tooth Fungi) that D. fragilis is a species not represented in the British Isles. The extant records largely date from 2006/2007 and from Worcester, Gloucester and Kent. We therefore assess this taxon as currently being data deficient.

 

Geastrum berkeleyi Massee
Previous assessment: EX (1992); EN B (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals). Assessed as CR D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the taxon appears currently to have a very restricted distribution in the southern half of England. Prior to 1996 the taxon was considered to be extinct in Britain. Since then it has been recorded from only 2 sites in the West Midlands: Durlow Common in Herefordshire and Old Hills in Worcestershire. It has only fruited regularly at Durlow Common, and there not since 2004. Principal threats have included habitat destruction in the form of disturbance due to digging, tipping etc.

 

Geastrum corollinum (Batsch) Hollós
Previous assessment: VU (1992); EN B (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals). Assessed as CR D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, records appear currently to be limited to the southern half of England. It has not been recorded further north than the West Midlands during the 50 year period of this assessment. It appears to occur in a variety of habitats including woodland, farmland and even on slag heaps, though favouring freely-drained soils. It was once widely reported in England with a handful of records in Scotland and Wales. The main threat is habitat destruction.

 

Geastrum coronatum Pers.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 440
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 44 unique geo-referenced sites (440 mature individuals). Assessed as VU D1.
This taxon appears to be widely distributed in England and Wales, occurring as far north as Lancashire. It is found in a range of habitats including fixed dunes, mixed woodlands, coniferous plantations, parks and gardens. The number of known sites is, however, limited. The main threat is habitat destruction.

 

Geastrum elegans Vittad.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); EN B (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals). Assessed as CR D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the taxon currently appears to be restricted to sites in East Anglia and Cardiganshire, favouring sandy habitats close to the sea where trees are to be found. Principal threats include erosion and inappropriate sand dune management.

 

Geastrum floriforme Vittad.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE(2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals) + 30 at one site. Assessed as EN D.
First collected in 1952, in Lancashire, the taxon appears to be associated chiefly with Cupressus spp. and Quercus ilex on well-drained soils. It seems to be restricted, by and large, to the southern half of England, favouring a varied range lowland habitats, occurring more often in coastal localities of Cornwall, Essex, Sussex and Norfolk. It There are isolated records from as far north as Durham. However the number of known sites remains limited. There are reports of fruitbodies being gregarious and occasionally occurring in large numbers. However, extant records identify only one such large trooping group, at Seaford in Sussex.

 

Geastrum fornicatum (Huds.) Hook.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 730
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 73 unique geo-referenced sites (730 mature individuals). Assessed as VU D1.
The taxon appears to be restricted largely to the southern half of England and the Midlands. The greatest concentration of records stems from the south-west. Currently, it does not occur further north than Shropshire aside from a single record in East Lothian in 1985. It is very sparsely represented in Wales with 2 records. Range of habitats is varied including broadleaved woodlands coniferous plantations, churchyards, dunes, and roadside verges. The taxon appears to favour rich, well-drained soils.

 

Geastrum lageniforme Vittad.
Previous assessment: EX (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 120
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 12 unique geo-referenced sites (120 mature individuals). Assessed as EN D.
The range of this taxon is mainly restricted to the western side of England, and Wales, with isolated records from Sussex and Northamptonshire. Prior to 1953, however, it had also been recorded in Norfolk and Suffolk. It has been found growing generally but not exclusively in association with broadleaf trees, in a variety of habitats at altitudes up to 350 metres, and favouring dry, sandy soils. It appears to be on the northernmost limit of its European range since it is widely distributed in southern parts of Europe (Sunhede 1989). The main threat is habitat destruction.

 

Geastrum minimum Schwein.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals). Assessed as CR D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the taxon is virtually restricted to sandy soils in dunes planted with pine, adjacent to the sea, on the north coast of Norfolk, in the Holkham area. There are very infrequent records in areas more distant from the coast, in Cornwall and Westmorland. Main threats include erosion and inappropriate sand dune management.
Zamora JC, Calonge FD, Hosaka K., et al. 2014. Systematics of the genus Geastrum (Fungi: Basidiomycota) revisited. Taxon 63, 3: 477–497 proposes revising most records of this species to G. marginatum. The above, however, is a recent, one-year old study. Neither the Species Fungorum nor the Checklist of British Fungi lists G. marginatum. It seems to us inappropriate to revise this Geastrum species until such time as Zamora et. al. are either more widely accepted, or when other authorities have reached similar conclusions.


Geastrum pectinatum Pers.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 710
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 71 unique geo-referenced sites (710 mature individuals). Assessed as VU D1.
The taxon is largely recorded at sites in England and Wales at altitudes below 150 metres. A few records have been taken from Yorkshire, and a limited number of collections have been made in lowland areas of Scotland, most notably in Peebles and East Lothian. It appears to favour parklands and mixed woodlands, more often in association with coniferous trees, and it is also found fruiting at roadsides. The main threat is habitat destruction.

 

Geastrum quadrifidum DC. ex Pers.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 230
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 23 unique geo-referenced sites (230 mature individuals). Assessed as EN D.
The taxon appears not to occur further north than southern Yorkshire, and the largest concentration of records comes from the southern counties of England, mainly at elevations below 100 metres. Early British records suggested that the taxon was restricted to beech woodlands on calcareous soil. However, in the last 20 years it has been found fruiting in an extensive range of habitats including churchyards, mixed woodlands, coniferous plantations, and parkland, with most collections coming from Somerset, Gloucestershire, and West Norfolk. The main threat is habitat destruction.

 

Geastrum rufescens Pers.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1130
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 113 unique geo-referenced sites (1130 mature individuals). Assessed as NT.
Occurring almost entirely in the southern counties of England, a few records come from as far north as Yorkshire. The habitat is generally mixed woodlands. We have assessed this as Near Threatened rather than of Least Concern. The species appears to be chiefly found in Surrey, Hampshire and Kent where there is increasing human pressure on its woodland sites, and we have therefore erred on the side of caution, permissible under IUCN regulations.

 

Geastrum schmidelii Vittad.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 370
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 37 unique geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals). Assessed as VU D1
The taxon is more or less restricted to fixed dune grasslands, dune slacks, and sandy soils, typically amongst grass and moss, in coastal regions in the western half of England, and in Wales. There is only a single extant record from Scotland (Angus). A limited number of records have come from comparable dune systems in Lincolnshire, and it has also been found occasionally on calcareous sites. Restricted habitats suggest that the species is vulnerable. Principal threats include erosion and inappropriate sand dune management.

 

Hericium coralloides (Scop.) Pers.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals). Assessed as VU D1.
Biodiversity Action Plan species. The taxon occurs in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, on rotting standing trunks and fallen logs, associated chiefly with veteran trees of Fagus sylvatica, at altitudes below 100 metres. It has also been recorded on Fraxinus spp. and Ulmus spp. It is more or less restricted in its distribution to the southern half of England. Notable threats lie in its reputation as an edible species, and in management policies of removing dead and fallen timber.

 

Hydnellum aurantiacum (Batsch) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: EN (1992); VU B (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 360
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 36 unique geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1
A biodiversity action plan species that currently appears restricted in its distribution to the Scottish Highlands, almost all extant records stemming from the forest areas of Abernethy, Inverey and Rothiemurchus. There are a few questionable records from P. sylvestris plantations in Cornwall. It is ectomycorrhizal with Pinus sylvestris on acid, sandy soils, occasionally on more basic soils. Main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication. The species is considered to be scarce across the extent of its European range.

 

Hydnellum auratile (Britzelm.) Maas Geest.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 30
Population cannot be estimated due to historic confusion surrounding the taxonomic concept. Many records have now been attributed to H. aurantiacum. The only records currently attributed to the taxon are from the 1990s, located in the Scottish Highlands, and associated with Pinus sylvestris. These records, however, are of dubious accuracy. A collection from Sweden in 2004 (Ernest Emmett) confirmed that most Scottish records of H. auratile are, in fact, small specimens H. aurantiacum. The Swedish collection is clearly different - bright orange with a white rim to the pileus, contrasting with the buff colours of H. aurantiacum, and is associated with Picea abies. Spores sizes are also at variance. In our view there is continuing taxonomic uncertainty, coupled with insufficient records. Ref. Field Mycology, Vol 5(2), April 2004. Dickson, G. and Emmett, E.

 

Hydnellum caeruleum (Hornem.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 560
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 56 unique geo-referenced sites (560 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, restricted to native pine woods in the Scottish Highlands, where it is ectomycorrhizal with Pinus sylvestris, at altitudes above 250 metres. The bulk of records are from Abernethy and Rothiemurchus Forests. It is claimed that occasional fruitbodies are found with Fagus, but this is not supported by extant UK records. Main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Hydnellum cumulatum K.A. Harrison
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
The species appears to be restricted to coniferous forests in the Scottish Highlands, always associated with Pinus sylvestris, at altitudes above 200 metres. First described in 1964. Main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Hydnellum ferrugineum (Fr.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: EN (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 490
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 49 unique geo-referenced sites (490 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
The species appears to be largely confined to coniferous forests in the Scottish Highlands, where it is ectomycorrizal with Pinus sylvestris, at altitudes above 200 metres on poor sandy soils. Main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication. The species is widely distributed in Europe, but consistently scarce.

 

Hydnellum gracilipes (P. Karst.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 90+
Estimated population: The population cannot be estimated because the species was only recently recognised in GB. It seems to be associated with mixed woodlands, at altitudes above 200m. and currently records are restricted to the Scottish Highlands. Recording of this species only effectively commenced in 2012, and there has been insufficient recording time. The taxon is therefore currently assessed as DD.

 

Hydnellum scrobiculatum (Fr.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: EN (1992); annex (2006)
2015 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 790
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 79 unique geo-referenced sites (790 mature individuals). Assessed as NT.
The taxon is found on both coniferous and mixed woodlands and is considered able to grow with many trees, although it is chiefly associated with Pinus spp. and Fagus spp. It is widely distributed in Europe. Main threats include trampling, soil compaction, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Laxitextum bicolor (Pers.) Lentz
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 290
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 29 unique geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
A small lignicolous taxon, indigenous to parts of western Europe, in which the fruit bodies are found growing on rotting deciduous wood, chiefly Alnus spp. Main threats include depletion of alder carrs.

 

Lycoperdon atropurpureum Vittad.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 40+
Population cannot be estimated. It has been recorded in GB only 4 times since 1970, in Shropshire, Yorkshire and South Wiltshire, and more research is needed into possible new localities before any realistic assessment can be made. The taxon appears to be associated chiefly with Quercus spp. It is known to have narrow ecological preferences for thermophilic woods, including southern oak woodlands. It is thought possibly to have been overlooked in the past due to confusion with L. molle.

 

Lycoperdon caudatum J. Schröt.
Previous assessment: EN(1992); VU D2 (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D.
The taxon has been recorded in calcareous dune slacks and damp calcareous woodland. The sites though very sparse, range geographically from the south coast of England, to Yorkshire, to the Scottish lowlands. In the past there has been some taxonomic confusion with L. pedicellatum Peck 1873, which is now synonymised with L. caudatum. Irrespective of the taxon version applied, and after removal of a substantial number of inadvertent replications in UK databases, we consider this taxon assessment to be justified. In mainland Europe it has suffered widespread losses, and some national extinctions.

 

Lycoperdon decipiens Durieu & Mont.
Previous assessment: VU (1992); EX (2006)
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as EN D.
The taxon appears to be restricted in its distribution to the southern counties of England including Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Worcestershire, and Sussex. Suitable habitats appear to be dry, mostly calcareous grasslands, and it is thermophilous. There was a single validated record prior to 1965, and the limited number of records since 1965 are dated between 1980 and 1990. It may be that the taxon is data deficient, or that it has recently become extinct, but for the time being it seems reasonable to classify it as endangered. In Europe it is fairly widespread.

 

Lycoperdon dermoxanthum Vittad.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 550
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 55 unique geo-referenced sites (550 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
Formerly, this taxon has been synonymised with Bovista pusilla sensu auct. mult. (e.g. Kreisel), and with Lycoperdon ericetorum Pers. It appears to be fairly selective ecologically, requiring sandy soils, including fixed dune grasslands, other coastal locations, and sandy heaths. The taxon may, in the past, have been under-recorded resulting from confusion with other morphologically similar species, including Bovista limosa.

 

Lycoperdon ericaeum Bonord.
Previous assessment: EX (1992); EX (2006)
2015 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals. The species was considered extinct prior to 1991. It appears to be largely restricted to fixed dune grasslands, which tend not to be frequently visited by recorders. Until more extensive investigation is carried out into its distribution, it is assessed as data deficient.

 

Lycoperdon mammiforme Pers.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 430
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 43 unique geo-referenced sites (430 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
The taxon is associated with a range of deciduous trees on humus, in calcareous, mixed and broadleaved woodlands at various sites in England and Wales. It occurs mostly in more westerly parts of southern England, and in Wales. Records come chiefly from Gwent and Herefordshire. It has not been recorded in Scotland.

 

Lycoperdon umbrinum Pers.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 590
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 59 unique geo-referenced sites (590 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
The taxon has been recorded in a range of habitats in England, Scotland and Wales, favouring acid soils. It is mainly associated with conifers, in plantations of Picea spp. Although widespread, it is rare in Britain. It is more commonly encountered in parts of Europe.

 

Myriostoma coliforme (Dicks.) Corda
Previous assessment: EX (1992); CR B (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as CR D.
The taxon was once widespread on sandy soils of roadsides and hedgerows in East Anglia, with an outlying population in Worcestershire. By 1880 it appeared to have become extinct, but was rediscovered on a sandy lane bank in Suffolk in 2006. It often grows in association with nettles on well-drained, basic soils. It is currently threatened in over 50% of countries in its European range.

 

Phellodon confluens (Pers.) Pouzar
Previous assessment: EN (1992); annex (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 710
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 71 unique geo-referenced sites (710 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species. Although the taxon has been recorded from latitudes as far north as the Scottish Highlands, its records derive predominantly from lowland sites in southern England. It is found in association with deciduous trees, chiefly Castanea sativa and Quercus spp. The former has often been subject to felling for 'conservation' purposes. Associated with a microhabitat of banks, paths and tracksides within woodlands, main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Sarcodon glaucopus Maas Geest. & Nannf.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); VU B (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 490
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 49 unique geo-referenced sites (490 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species. The range of this taxon appears currently restricted to the Scottish Highlands where it is ectomycorrhizal with Pinus sylvestris. Associated with a microhabitat of banks, paths and tracksides within woodlands, main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: VU (1992);
2015: re-assessed - British records now assigned to S. squamosus
The range of this taxon, subject to re-appraisal of its position, appears currently restricted to the Scottish Highlands where it is ectomycorrhizal with Pinus sylvestris. Associated with a microhabitat of banks, paths and tracksides within woodlands, main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Sarcodon scabrosus (Fr.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment: EN (1992); NT (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 290
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 29 unique geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as VU D1.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the taxon is predominantly associated with Castanea sativa. Although there are limited records from the Scottish Highlands, it is mainly recorded in southern England. C. sativa has often been subject to inappropriate felling for 'conservation' purposes. Associated with a microhabitat of banks, paths and tracksides within woodlands, main threats include trampling, soil compaction, mountain biking, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication.

 

Tulostoma fimbriatum Fr.
Previous assessment: NE (1992); NE (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 10
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at a single unique geo-referenced sites (10 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as CR D.
The taxon appears currently to be restricted to a single location in a fixed dune grassland on the Ynyslas National Nature Reserve in Cardiganshire where it grows on sandy soil. It was recorded in October 2011. Main threats include recreation and inappropriate management.

 

Tulostoma melanocyclum Bres.
Previous assessment: R (1992); EN B (2006)
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as CR D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the taxon is restricted to fixed dune grasslands and dune slacks. It has been recorded at sites on both east and west coasts of England and Wales. Its range appears to extend as far north as South Lancashire. Main threats include recreation and inappropriate coastal management.

 

Tulostoma niveum Kers
Previous assessment: VU (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2015 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals). A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as CR D.
A Biodiversity Action Plan species, the range of the taxon appears to be restricted to limestone pavements in the north of Scotland - in Sutherland (Inchnadamph) and Aberdeenshire (Craig Leek). It is generally found growing in association with moss cushions. The taxon is currently threatened in over 50% of the countries in its European range.

 

9. Site Protection and Threats
Many of the sites where red-listed species are recorded are designated Sites of Special
Scientific Interest (SSSI), National Nature Reserves (NNR), Local Nature Reserves (NR) or
Country Parks (CP). Illustration: Lycoperdon mammiforme. NNR (3); NR (7); CP (2). Even so, fungi are very rarely named among the special interest features and therefore usually only receive indirect protection.
Threats to sites include:
• Habitat loss through development, tree felling (e.g. sweet chestnut).
• Appropriate management at inappropriate times such as carrying out mowing,
leaf blowing and mechanical bracken control during the fruiting season; use of tractors in
wet conditions leading to localised ploughing and severing of mycorrhizal roots.
• Lack of management such as allowing coarser vegetation to encroach, e.g. bramble,
bracken, grasses which inhibits fruiting and may be detrimental to fragile mycelia over
a long period.
• Picking of edible (and non-edible) fruit bodies.
• Trampling and compaction of mycelium and/or fruit bodies resulting from poorly-sited
public activities such as mountain biking, car parking and organised events with
checkpoints/refreshment/toilet areas sited on species-rich areas of parkland.
10. Recommendations for future recording of RDL species
1. Estimated or actual fruit body numbers to be recorded as well as the number of discrete
patches of fruit bodies under each individual host tree or at least 10 metres apart.
2. 8-digit (GPS) grid references to be taken, where possible, for each discrete fruiting patch.
3. Targeted surveys to be undertaken of all red-listed species concentrating initially on
those sites with the longest gaps since the last records were made.
4. Voucher specimens (even a small section of a single fruit body) to be deposited in
national fungaria (RBG, Kew and Edinburgh), in instances where verification is deemed necessary.
5. Literature used for identification to be cited when a record/voucher is documented to try
to future-proof the record against taxonomic change.
6. Information on exact locations of red-listed species to be sent to owners/managers of all
designated and otherwise protected sites.

 

11. Acknowledgements
Thanks go to the many UK recording groups and individual recorders that support the CATE database with their records, and in particular the many that contribute their data via the online recording module, which saves the administration team a considerable amount of cleaning and correcting work. These sources provide the foundation for all RDL assessments.
We acknowledge the financial support fpr the work of the Trust from organisations including RSPB, the National Trust, and county wildlife trusts, as well as several individual volunteer donors. We also acknowledge the very considerable professional support in the IT development of CATE2 by our IT consultant, Geoff Hammond, much of it carried out on a voluntary basis.

 

12. References
Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels. Version 4.0.
IUCN Species Survival Commission. Revised by the National Red List working Group of the IUCN SSC Red List Committee. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, January 2010.
IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1. Second Edition.
IUCN Species Survival Commission. As approved by the 51st meeting of the IUCN Council, Gland, Switzerland, 9 February 2000. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2012
Documentation Standards and Consistency Checks for IUCN Red List Assessments and Species Accounts. Version 2 (September 2013). IUCN Red List Unit, Cambridge, UK. IUCN 2013.
Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 11 (February 2014).
Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. 2014.
Species Status Report. No.14. Red List of Fungi for Great Britain: Boletaceae. A pilot conservation assessment based on national database records, fruitbody morphology and DNA barcoding.
By: A.M. Ainsworth, J.H. Smith, L. Boddy, B.T.M. Dentinger, M. Jordan, D. Parfitt, H.J.
Rogers & S.J. Skeates. JNCC 2013
Red Data List of Threatened British Fungi (2006). A preliminary unpublished assessment prepared by the British Mycological Society.
By: S. Evans, A. Henrici, B. Ing.
A Provisional Red Data List of British Fungi. Published in The Mycologist 1992.
By Bruce Ing, BMS Conservation Officerr, Chester.
Applying IUCN res-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. (2011).
By Anders Dahlberg and Gregory M. Mueller.
Published in Science Direct, Fungal Ecology 4 (2011) 147-162

 

Bibliography and sources of further information.
Hansen, L. and Knudsen, H. Nordic Macromycetes Vol. 3 Heterobasidioid, Aphyllophoroid and Gasromycetoid Basidiomycetes. Nordsvamp, Copenhagen 1997.
Pegler, D.N., Laessoe, T. and Spooner, B.M. British Puffballs, Earthstars and Stinkhorns. R.B.G. Kew, 1995
Pegler, D.N., Roberts, P.J., and Spooner, B.M. British Chanterelles and Tooth Fungi: an account of the British Cantharelloid and Stipitate Hydnoid fungi. R.B.G. Kew, 1997.
Watling, R. and Turnbull, E. British Fungus Flora, 8: Cantharellaceae, Gomphaceae and Amyloid-spored and xeruloid members of Tricholomataceae. R.B.G. Edinburgh, 1998
Wright, Jorge E. The Genus Tulostoma - a world monograph. Bibliotheca Mycologica, Schweizerbart, Berlin, 1987
Zamora JC, Calonge FD, Hosaka K., et al. 2014. Systematics of the genus Geastrum (Fungi: Basidiomycota) revisited. Taxon 63, 3: 477–497


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