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RED LISTS OF THREATENED SPECIES

 

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2

Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi,

based on national and local database records, fruit body

morphology, and microscopic anatomy

(please refer to RD Assessment 1 for preliminary sections)

 

Conforming to:
the Guidelines for using IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria,
Version 11 (February 2014)
and IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Second Edition
by:
Val Davies, Paul Nichol
Project manager: Michael Jordan, Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor

Copyright: The Fungus Conservation Trust 2016
Registered Charity

 

The Fungus Conservation Trust
2016 Species Status: Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi, based on national and local database records, fruit body morphology, and microscopic anatomy.


 

9.   Results: assessments for RDL taxa. (omitting LC)

 

Agaricus altipes   (F.H. Møller) Pilát
Previous assessment: not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 310
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 31 unique geo-referenced sites (310 mature individuals).   A small and comparatively restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species appears not to be host specific, but has often been recorded in proximity to Prunus spinosa and to Picea.   It is thermophilic and its occurrence is mainly restricted to lowland areas in the southern half of England where it favours sandy soils.   It is rarely found at altitudes above 200m.   It is associated most frequently with grassy areas of gardens, parklands, and roadside verges.
Detailed records date only from about 1950.  50% of UK records on CATE2 were first recorded as A. aestivalis, and it is likely that a proportion of records currently determined as  A. aestivalis are in fact of Agaricus altipes, in which minor differences occur.    The bulk of records has arisen since 2000, and derives mainly from Gloucester, Wiltshire and Somerset.
The species may be subject to a variety of threats that include trampling, compaction by vehicles, park and garden maintenance, tree-felling, and eutrophication.  
Accessing adequate literature is also problematic for the field recorder.   The species is not mentioned in B. and K. Vol. 4, and is referred to only in passing  by Roberto Galli.
In Europe the species is widespread and occurs in Bulgaria, Belarus, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain and the Ukraine.   It is red listed in Bulgaria, described as rare in Germany, and red listed in Holland as vulnerable.   It is found, to a limited extent, in the southern part of Sweden, but elsewhere appears generally to be considered of least concern.


 

Agaricus benesii   (Pilát) Pilát
Previous assessment: not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 630
Estimated population: 1- 10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 63 unique geo-referenced sites (630 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable, but which might exceed 1000 in the future.
The  taxon appears not to be host specific, but is mycorrhizal with a number of woodland plants.   It is most frequently recorded in grassy places including parks, gardens, cemeteries and woodland edges, generally favouring calcareous soils.   It may be subject to a variety of threats that include trampling, compaction by vehicles, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication, and foraging for edible species.
The species was first identified as recently as 1951, and was initially treated as a species distinct from A. squamulifer with which it has now been merged.
In Europe it is considered rare, though somewhat more frequent in central Europe.   European type collections include: 1992, from an alpine pasture, associated with Pinus (Oensingen SO).

 

Agaricus bohusii   Bon.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 620
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 62 unique geo-referenced sites (620 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is mycorrhizal chiefly with a range of broadleaf trees, especially Quercus, but is also associated with coniferous trees including Pinus and Cedrus.   It is predominantly a lowland species, rarely found growing at altitudes above 150 metres, and it is considered to be on the limit of its northern range in the UK, since it is thermophilic, favouring warm, sub-mediterranean climates.   In Britain it occurs predominantly in the south eastern counties of Kent, Surrey and Middlesex, but has been recorded periodically as far north as Edinburgh.   It may be subject to a variety of threats that include trampling, compaction by vehicles, track maintenance, felling of host trees, eutrophication, and foraging for edible species.
The species is critically endangered in parts of Europe including the Balkans where it has been subject to considerable habitat loss, and where it is regarded as a prized edible species.  

 

Agaricus bresadolanus   Bohus
Previous assessment: not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 690
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 69 unique geo-referenced sites (690 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is ectomycorrhizal with a number of native and non-native host trees and shrubs, but especially with Robinia pseudoacacia.   Its favoured habitats are generally the margins of cultivated fields, parks and gardens, as well as in open mixed woodlands, in lowland regions, rarely being found growing at altitudes higher than 130 metres.    Its range is chiefly restricted to the east and southeast of England, the principal strongholds being the counties of Kent and Surrey.  Currently the most northerly record is from mid-west Yorkshire.   It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It is not threatened by foraging interests since it is toxic.  However, it may also be picked by foragers in error.
In Europe the species is listed as frequent in parks and gardens in Germany, and Italy, but rare in France.  It occurs very rarely in Holland where it is red listed as critically endangered.   It is also red listed in the Czech Republic, but is data deficient.

 


Agaricus cupreobrunneus   (Jul. Schäff. & Steer) Pilát
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 540
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 54 unique geo-referenced sites (540 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is ectomycorrhizal with a range of herbaceous plants, mostly members of the Poaceae, but can also be encountered in bare soil.   It  is predominantly, but not exclusively, associated with sandy soils, in fixed dune grasslands, and coastal heaths.   The CATE2 database shows widely scattered records from the south of England to the Scottish Highlands.    Principal threats include foraging, erosion and inappropriate sand dune management.   It is also regarded as an edible species.
In Europe it is reported from the Iberian peninsula, but not widely reported from elsewhere in the continent.   European type collections include 1987, from a hay meadow in association with Malus domestica (Meggen LU).

 

Agaricus depauperatus   (F.H. Møller) Pilát
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 17 unique geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
The species is predominantly associated with herbaceous plants in parks and gardens in England.   However, the species has been recorded over a number of years  at Kew Gardens, where it is apparently mycorrhizal with Cedrus.   It is not recorded in Scotland, and there is a single extant record from a roadside verge in Wales.   Principal threats include changes in land management.    Available literature referring to this species is fairly limited.   It is not mentioned in B. and K. Vol 4, and only as a passing footnote by Roberto Galli.
In Europe the species is described generally as rare, but it is possibly more widespread than has been reported.   It is described from regions as far apart as Norway, the massif central of France, Italy and Spain.  In Denmark, it is red listed as data deficient, and possibly overlooked, through confusion with other similar species.  It is red listed in the Czech Republic as critically endangered, and possibly extinct.

 

Agaricus devoniensis   P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 360
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 36 unique geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is restricted in its distribution to dune grasslands and dune slacks on sandy soils, adjacent to the sea, where it forms mycorrhizal associations with Ammophila and other herbaceous plants.    Contrary to the impression afforded by its name, this species has only been recorded from two coastal locations in Devon.   Elsewhere in Britain it has been recorded as far north as the Orkney Islands and West Sutherland, but its strongholds appear to be along the south coast of England, from Cornwall to Kent.   Principal threats would appear to be coastal erosion, and inappropriate sand dune management.
The species was first named as Psalliota arenicola by Wakefield and Pearson in 1946, and only took the current preferred name A. devoniensis in 1960.   A distinct species, A. litoralis, was named by (Wakef. & A. Pearson) Pilát, and is included in this assessment.  Until recently it was without taxonomic opinion.
In Europe A. devoniensis  is described generally as infrequent.   It occurs with moderate frequency in all coastal areas of Holland, but it is thought to be in decline in Denmark, red listed as vulnerable due to habitat removal.   It is noted to be rare in Latvia, where it is probably on the northermost extreme of its range.   It is also listed from coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain.

 


Agaricus endoxanthus   Berk. & Broome
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very small and poorly known population (Criterion D) assessed as being data deficient.
This is a non-native species of exotic origin, apparently restricted to greenhouses in the UK, having been imported from tropical rain forests.   One introduction at Kew Gardens may have originated from Costa Rica.   Molecular analysis of collected material has revealed considerable genetic diversity within the species, and suggests that hybridization and recombination have occurred, more than once, perhaps due to intercontinental trade.   A few collections have been mid-identified and turned out to be A. moelleri.    The species is regarded as edible.
Generally available literature on this species is very sparse.   For the reasons listed above we have categorised it, for the moment, as being data deficient.
Elsewhere, the species is reported to be broadly distributed across several continents, from United States to Australia.

 

Agaricus fuscofibrillosus   (F.H. Møller) Pilát
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 630
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 63 unique geo-referenced sites (660 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species apparently has widespread distribution in Britain, chiefly found in open mixed and broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens, favouring grassy soils.   It is considered by some authorities to be an intermediate between Agaricus lanipes and Agaricus langei.   It occurs chiefly in the more southerly regions of England and Wales.   Isolated records have also been obtained in the Scottish Highlands, and as far north as Hebrides and Shetland Islands.  It is regarded as an edible species, and therefore principal threats may include foraging.   It was first described by Møllerin 1950.
In Europe, occurrence is widespread but often very scarce or patchy.  It is red listed as critically endangered in Holland, found in only about six sites.    It is also red listed in Germany, yet in Denmark it is described as being of least concern.   Further afield, it also occurs on the Californian west coast of the United States and in southern South America, but recent molecular analysis reveals distinct genetic differences when compared with the European species.

 

Agaricus gennadii   (Chatin & Boud.) P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: EN D 
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 17 unique geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.   JNCC literature (2010) proposed that it is critically endangered, and in our opinion it borders on this catgegory.
It is chiefly restricted to the southern counties of England, where it is mycorrhizal with a number coniferous trees including Cedrus, Cupressus and Pinus.     The species appears to be thermophilic.   It is sometimes encountered in parks, ornamental gardens, churchyards, and on roadside verges.   It has been described, confusingly, to favour sandy, calcareous, and moist rich clay soils.    Principal threats include air pollution, soil compaction, felling of host trees and vegetation overgrowth.    The species received its current name in 1960.   Some collections have been mis-identified as A. devoniensis, which also occurs in dunes, and in association with Cupressus.
In Europe it has been found with slightly more frequency in the Mediterranean regions of western Europe, but it is extremely rare in northern Europe.   In more southerly parts of France and Germany it is found rarely in a few locations.   It is categorised as critically endangered in the red list of the Czech Republic.   It is also found to a restricted extent in parts of north America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand.   It is an edible species, and In China it has been commercially exploited.  

 

Agaricus lanipes   (F.H. Møller & Jul. Schäff.) Hlaváček
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 720
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 72 unique geo-referenced sites (720 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is widely distributed through lowland  England and Wales, though the greatest concentration of records comes from the southern half of England, where it tends to be found in open woodlands.    There is a single extant record from lowland Scotland.   It is a thermophilous species that rarely occurs at altitudes above 100m.    It is ectomycorrhizal with a range of broadleaf trees, especially Quercus ilex, but it is also not infrequently recorded in association with conifers.
In Europe the species is believed to be widely distributed, though generally rare, and it is encountered most frequently in the Mediterranean region.  In Denmark it is red listed, though as of least concern.   In Holland it is described as fairly rare, but currently not threatened.

 

Agaricus litoralis   (Wakef. & A. Pearson) Pilát
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  660
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 66 unique geo-referenced sites (660 mature individuals).    A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is largely restricted in Britain to sandy soils in coastal grassland, fixed dune grasslands, and dune slacks.   It has also been found in coastal scrub, coastal heaths, and occasionally in cemeteries.   It occurs wholly in mycorrhizal association with grasses.   Records have come predominantly from coastal regions of Cornwall, East Norfolk, and Sussex.   The species has been recorded to a limited extent in coastal grasslands in Wales, and in Scotland as far north as Sutherland.   Occasionally it has been found at altitudes up to 200m.   Some records have been deposited using the synonym A. spissicaulis and the species has been confused with A. devoniensis, both species often occurring in the same vicinity.     It can also be confused with A. bresadiolanus.    It is sometimes written as A. littoralis.   Until recently the species was without taxonomic opinion.   Principal threats include inappropriate dune and coastal management, coastal erosion and rising sea levels.
In Europe the species is described as being little known, but rare.

 

Agaricus luteomaculatus   F.H. Møller
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
This species appears to be largely restricted in its distribution to the southern counties of England.   It has not been recorded in Scotland, and there is currently a single record from South Wales.  It is found chiefly in parks and gardens in association with grassy soils.   The largest number of records have been obtained at Kew Gardens in Surrey.   Although CATE2 holds isolated record from 1989, the bulk of records stem from the 21st century.   It is chiefly mycorrhizal with grasses, but is also known to be mycorrhizal with Picea.   Macroscopic descriptions are hard to come by, and infrequently comprehensive.
In Europe it is considered to be rare, but there is a paucity of assessments.   In Holland there are very few known locations, and it is red listed as critically endangered.  In Denmark it is red listed as data deficient.   European type collections include 1990, in needle litter with Picea. (Abtwil AG)

 

Agaricus lutosus   F.H. Møller
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 440
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 44 unique geo-referenced sites (440 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is chiefly reported from the southern counties of England, but it has also been recorded as far north as South Aberdeenshire in Scotland.   It is generally associated with grassy soil in meadows, and among  broadleaf trees.  It favours open woodlands, woodland edges, parks, churchyards, and lightly wooded heaths.   Its small size may mean that it is sometimes overlooked, resulting in its frequency not being fully known.
In Europe the species is regarded either as rare, or under-reported.   It is identified specifically as rare in Germany and Spain.

 

Agaricus macrocarpus
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 690
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 69 unique geo-referenced sites (690 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
A high proportion of the records for this species originate from the southeast of England, in Hampshire, West Kent, and Surrey.  It has also been recorded as far north as Caithness in Scotland.   It occurs in a wide variety of habitats and altitudes from moorland, to cemeteries, and broadleaf woodlands, generally favouring sandy soils.   It appears not to be host specific, and occurs with both broadleaf and coniferous trees, typically fruiting with single specimens.  It is probably thermophilic.   Recording is, however, comparatively infrequent for such a distinctive species, and we have emulated a number of European countries by including it here as a vulnerable red list species.   Principal threats include collection by foragers, since it is regarded as being a good, edible species.
In Europe, occurrence is patchy.   In Poland the species is described as common.   Elsewhere, it is included on the red list of Holland as being rare and endangered.   There is a concentration of sites in the far south of Germany, otherwise distribution there is limited.  It is described as rare in Slovenia, and in Bulgaria it is also listed as an endangered red list species.


 

Agaricus moellerianus   (Batsch) Hollós
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   Assessed as being data deficient.
The species occurs in lowland meadows, pastures, and other damp locations including some coastal regions.   In Britain, where it was first recorded in 1978, its occurrence to date has been restricted to isolated locations in Cambridgeshire, Cumbria, Sussex, and Wiltshire.   We cannot therefore ascribe to it any category of rarity until further records are obtained.
Its European status is also poorly understood.

 

Agaricus phaeolepidotus   F.H. Møller
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 440
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 44 unique geo-referenced sites (440 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is found in mixed woodlands,  parks and pastures.    It is thought to be mycorrhizal with a number of mainly broadleaf tree species.   British records indicate association chiefly with Betula, Fagus, and Quercus, but it has also been recorded occasionally in association with Taxus baccata.   It is restricted to lowland regions, rarely exceeding altitudes of 150m, throughout England and Wales,   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   It appears to favour rich, sandy soils.   Ingestion of the species is toxic in humans.   It has a characteristic yellowing to the flesh, but also a phenolic smell.
In Europe it is uncommon, though it occurs throughout much of the continent.   It is described as not very common in Italy.   In Holland it is fairly rare, though not considered to be threatened.   It is red listed as vulnerable in Denmark.

 


Agaricus porphyrocephalus   F.H. Møller
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 550
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 55 unique geo-referenced sites (550 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The main strongholds of the species appear to be in the southern counties of Hampshire, Somerset and Sussex, although records reveal that its distribution extends further north into Scotland, as far as Sutherland.   It occurs to a limited extent in Wales.   It is mycorrhizal with a number of herbaceous plants, and is chiefly associated with grassy soils in open woodlands, heaths, parklands, and cemeteries.   There are few associations with trees other than Quercus.   Although first named by Møller in 1952, British records stem chiefly from the late 1990s onwards.
It is thought to be present throughout most of temperate Europe, but is little reported.   It is virtually absent from Scandinavia and much of the Mediterranean region.   Some continental authorities consider it to be a variety of A. cupreobrunneus.

 

Agaricus subfloccosus   (J.E. Lange) Hlaváček
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 370
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 37 unique geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
Restricted mainly to coniferous woodlands, and parklands with coniferous trees, including species of Abies, Picea,  Pinus, and Taxus, with each of which it is mycorrhizal.    it is predominantly encountered in the southern counties of England, though there are isolated records from as far north as Durham, and there is a single record in CATE2 obtained from Aberdeenshire.
In Europe the species is rare, mainly restricted to coastal regions of the northwest.  It is red listed in Denmark, though categorised as being of least concern.   By contrast in Holland, where it is only known from 9 locations, it is red listed as being critically endangered.   European type collections include 1959, in a park under conifers, at Bern, Switzerland.   It is also known from North America though recent molecular profiling indicates the possibility of different species.   There are variations in morphology, and there is also no extant holotype to support Lange's original determination.


 

Agaricus subperonatus   (J.E. Lange) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 610
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 61 unique geo-referenced sites (610 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
Records come predominantly from the eastern side of the British Isles, most notably from Kent, Norfolk, Yorkshire, and Mid Lothian.   Favouring lowland habitats, and rarely encountered at altitudes above 100 metres, the species is mycorrhizal with a range of broadleaf and coniferous trees, and is generally regarded as being thermophilic.   It is most frequently encountered in woodlands, parks and gardens, on roadside verges and in churchyards, in humus-rich soils.   Threats are mainly from foraging since the species is widely advertised as good in culinary use.
In Europe the species is considered variously to be either fairly common, or rare, and is similarly advertised as a sought-after edible fungus.   Its worldwide distribution is not fully known.   It reported from New Zealand, probably as an introduction.

 

Agaricus subrufescens   Peck
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2015 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
It appears to be of more or less worldwide distribution, and is also a species that can be grown commercially.   It was widely cultivated in the Atlantic United States until the early part of the 20th century, after which market trends changed.    However, it is still a widely sought edible species that is also reported to possess therapeutic medicinal value, most notably in combatting arteriosclerosis.   There is thus heavy pressure on field-collected specimens in Brazil, China, Japan, and the United Sates.   There has been some speculation (Wasser et. al. 2002) about whether the Brazilian fungus is a distinct species that should be named A. brasiliensis.  Collectively commercial sales exceed 600 million dollars annually.
The species is considered to be of tropical origin and its occurrence in northern Europe is rare.


 

Agaricus xantholepis   F.H. Møller
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   Assessed as being data deficient.
The current British population cannot be estimated.  It has been recorded here only 5 times since 1970, in Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Shropshire, and Staffordshire.   More research is needed into possible new localities before any realistic assessment can be made.   The taxon appears to be associated chiefly with open woodlands and woodland margins, but with no clearly defined preferences.    First identified by Møller in 1952, it is thought possibly to have been overlooked in the past due to confusion with A. lutosus with which it has morphological similarities, though with a wholly ochraceous cap, concolorous scales and a bulbous stipe base.
In Europe the species is little reported.   Very sparsely separated locations are described in Germany, and in Belgium.

 

Clitocybe agrestis  Harmaja
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  610
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 61 uniquely geo-referenced sites (610 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable, though perhaps close to being of least concern.
The species is very largely confined to the southern counties of England and Wales, at altitudes up to 200m.   There is a scattering of records from further north, and a solitary record exists from Forvie NNR in Scotland.   The species favours grassy soils, often in fixed dune grasslands, coastal scrub, parklands, cemeteries, and other open grassy places.   It appears to be thermophilic.   It was first named as recently as 1969, and has been synonymised with C. graminicola.  
The species is widely distributed in Europe, in grasslands, where it is reported to be often associated with Salix.   It is, however, red listed in a number of countries including Poland.   In Denmark it is red listed though as being of least concern, and it is described as occurring periodically in dry grassy habitats including edges of forest tracks, meadows  and orchards.


 

Clitocybe albofragrans  (Harmaja) Kuyper
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals:  40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 uniquely geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being data deficient.
The species occurs with both broadleaf and coniferous trees.   It was first named as recently as 1978.
In Europe it appears to have received little attention, though it may be widespread in distribution.   It is considered to be of frequent occurrence in Holland.    It is also included in the Danish Red List, though considered to be of least concern.

 

Clitocybe alexandri  (Gillet) Gillet
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals:  40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 uniquely geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being data deficient.
The species appears to be chiefly associated with grassy places  in coniferous woodlands, with trees including Pinus, Picea and Larix.   It favours calcareous soils and is thermophilic.   It is probably on the northernmost extent of its natural range in Britain.
In Europe it is sought after as an edible species, to an extent due to its comparatively massive, fleshy proportions.   It is also claimed to possess antimicrobial and cancer-retardant properties.  It appears frequently in partly-forested upland meadows and pastures in more southerly parts of Europe including southern France, the Iberian peninsula, the Czech Republic, and Italy as far south as Sicily.   In Denmark it is classed as being endangered, thought to be in decline due to acidification of suitable habitats.


 

Clitocybe amarescens  Harmaja
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  210
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 21 uniquely geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
With a solitary exception in Nottinghamshire, records of the species are confined to the south of Britain, with the majority being concentrated in Somerset.   It is coprophilic, generally found in association with sheep or ox dung, but also on well-fertilised soils, at altitudes of less than 100m.   It is at present not clear why the species is poorly recorded in Britain, though it may be confused with other aromatic species. The species was named as recently as 1969.  
It is widely distributed in northwest Europe where it occurs in a variety of habitats including parks, gardens, and woodland margins.   It is recorded extensively in Holland, where it is considered to be of least concern.

 

Clitocybe americana  H.E. Bigelow
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  190
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 19 uniquely geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).  A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered
The species is lignicolous.   Records are largely confined to the southeast corner of England, in Kent and Surrey, with handful of records from elsewhere in the south of England, including Worcestershire from where it was first reported.   The species appears to be thermophilic, arising on rotted wood, and is associated chiefly with broadleaf woodlands at altitudes rarely exceeding 200m. It was first named in 1976, and British records stem from 1983.
As its name suggests the species is a recent introduction to the British Isles from North America.   There is a potential problem with field determination in that ready access to accurate descriptions is very limited.


 

Clitocybe barbularum  (Romagn.) P.D. Orton
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  260
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 26 uniquely geo-referenced sites (260 mature individuals).   Although the number of recorded locations brings the species into the category (Criterion D) of vulnerable, we have erred on the side of caution, and it is assessed here as being endangered.
The species is largely confined to mossy, sandy soils in fixed dune grasslands, and it is occasionally found growing in coastal scrub.   Occurrence is widely scattered, as far north as Kincardineshire in Scotland, but the main concentration of records arise in the southwest of England.   Principal threats include inappropriate sand dune management, and coastal erosion.
In Europe it is uncommon, found in sandy forested areas of Scandinavia, Germany, and the Iberian peninsula.   Distribution appears to be uneven, dependent on suitable habitats.   In Denmark it is red listed, though as being of least concern.   In Holland, it is considered to be rare, restricted to the coastline, but not threatened.   However, In the Czech Republic it is red listed as being critically endangered.

 

Clitocybe brumalis   (Fr.) Quél.
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  570
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 57 uniquely geo-referenced sites (570 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
Occurrence is fairly widespread in Britain though mainly concentrated in the southern half of England.   It has been recorded very infrequently in Scotland and Wales.   The species is found predominantly in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, cemeteries and parks, and with few exceptions is associated with coniferous trees.   It appears to be thermophilous, rarely occurring at altitudes greater than 150m.
In Europe the species is widespread in coniferous forests.


 

Clitocybe ericetorum  (Pers.) Fr.
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  210
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 21 uniquely geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
Geographically the species appears to be widely distributed across Britain.   However, comparatively few locations have been recorded to date.   The records come mainly from the south of England on heaths, in peaty and sandy soils.   It has been recorded at altitudes more or less from sea level, up to 400m.
In 2002, the species was afforded a new taxon name of Lichenomphalia umbellifera  (L.) Redhead, Lutzoni, Moncalvo & Vilgalys.   We have, however, opted to include it under the taxon name by which it will be more familiar to most field workers, and which is retained in the CATE2 database.
In Europe, the species appears to be fairly uncommon, and patchy in distribution.   It is reported from a few regions of Germany, northern Italy, and occasionally in Latvia, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

 

Clitocybe foetens  Melot
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  220
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 22 uniquely geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species has been recorded in Britain at a limited number of sites, largely confined to more southerly parts of England and Wales, the strongest concentration being in Norfolk.   It favours grassy soils in lowland heaths and woodlands, mainly in association with coniferous trees, but it is also found occasionally with Quercus, Fagus, and Salix.  With very rare exceptions the species is not found at altitudes above 200m.   The species was first identified in 1980.
In Europe it occurs in coniferous forests, but with uneven distribution, and it may be generally under-reported.   In Germany it is regarded as being rare or overlooked.   In Demark it has been reported from only three locations, and its wider distribution is unclear.   However, in Holland it is fairly common and of least concern.


 

Clitocybe frysica  Kuyper
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  100
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 10 uniquely geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, but we consider it to be also probably data deficient.
The main areas from which a very limited number of records have been derived in Britain, are in lowland sites in Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, in the south of England.   An isolated and doubtful occurrence is noted from as far north as Cairnwell in the Scottish Highlands.   We have been uncertain whether or not to describe it as data deficient, but have been steered by the fact that there are very few reliable descriptions available.  However, it may also have been wrongly identified and thus under reported.   We have erred on the side of caution.
In Europe the species appears to be extremely rare, but is also generally data deficient.   It has been recorded in a few isolated locations in Holland and Germany.

 

 Clitocybe houghtonii  (W. Phillips) Dennis
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  770
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 77 uniquely geo-referenced sites (770 mature individuals).   This species comes close to the category of near threatened, but we have erred on the side of caution, noting also its rarity in Europe, and assessed it as being vulnerable.
Records of the species tend to be concentrated in a number of more southerly counties of England, chiefly Buckinghamshire, Kent, Norfolk, Oxfordshire, and Surrey.   It occurs in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, chiefly in association with Fagus with which it is mycorrhizal.   It is apparently thermophilous, and is rarely found at altitudes greater than 100m.   Threats include site removal and progressive urbanisation.
In Europe the species is widespread, but comparatively rare.   In Holland it is distributed thinly in the eastern half of the country.   It is red listed in Germany and Italy.  It is also red listed in the Tula region of Russia.   In Denmark it is red listed though considered to be data deficient.   In the Czech Republic it is described as being of uncertain distribution.
 


Clitocybe inornata  (Sowerby) Gillet
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  290
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 29 uniquely geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals).   Although the number of recorded locations brings the species into the category of vulnerable, we have erred on the side of caution, and it is assessed as being endangered.
The species has been recorded at a limited number of sites across Britain, from Perthshire in Scotland,  to Devon.   It occurs in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, chiefly in association with Fagus, and also, less commonly, with other broadleaf trees.   It also occurs with coniferous trees including Pinus , Picea, and Larix.   It favours calcareous soils, it is thermophilic, and is rarely encountered at altitudes above 150m.
In 2015 the species was afforded the new taxon name of Atractosporocybe inornata (Sowerby) P. Alvarado, G. Moreno & Vizzini.   We have, however, opted to include it here under the name by which it will be more familiar to most field workers, and which has also been retained in the CATE2 database.
In Europe the species seems to be more frequently recorded in coniferous forests.

 

Clitocybe sinopica  (Fr.) P. Kumm.
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  860
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 86 uniquely geo-referenced sites (860 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable, though perhaps close to being of least concern.
The species is recorded fairly extensively in Britain, predominantly in association with coniferous trees including Pinus and Picea, in mixed woodlands, churchyards and parks.     The main concentrations of records come from the south of England in Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire.    It is rarely encountered at altitudes above 200m.
In 2014, a new taxon name of Bonomyces sinopicus (Fr.) Vizzini was applied to the species.   We have opted to include it here under the taxon name by which it will be more familiar to most field workers, and which has been retained in the CATE2 database. 
The species is also recorded not infrequently in Europe.


 

Clitocybe squamulosa   (Pers.) P. Kumm.
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  250
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 25 uniquely geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being borderline endangered.   The taxon may also be under-reported.
The species is rarely encountered, though widely distributed in Britain, from the Scottish Highlands, to Kent.    It is not host specific, and is found in various habitats from mixed woodlands, to parks, and gardens.   It is a species that has been generally recorded in lowlands below 200m. although it has been found occasionally at more colline altitudes, including at Kindrogan in Perthshire.
In Europe it appears to be more common at colline and montane altitudes, mainly in coniferous forests, less frequently with broadleaf trees.   The species occurs extensively in the north of North America, again in more montane locations.

 

Clitocybe subspadicea  (J.E. Lange) Bon & Chevassut
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  320
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 32 uniquely geo-referenced sites (320 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable, though at risk of becoming endangered.
Occurrence of the species is mainly confined to the western side of Britain, with a majority of records coming from Gloucestershire, Lancashire, Somerset, and Wiltshire.   It has been found as far north as Peebles in Scotland.   It appears not be to host specific, although a majority of records are associated with Fagus in broadleaf woodlands, generally at altitudes below 200m.  It favours calcareous soils.
In parts of Europe, including Germany, the species is considered to be rare and of patchy distribution.  It is included in the Danish red list, though poorly known and, perhaps for this reason,  it is listed as of least concern.   In conclusion, it may be that generally in Europe C. subspadicea is simply under-reported

 


Clitocybe trulliformis  (Fr.) P. Karst.
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  140
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 14 uniquely geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
A rarely encountered species, most of the existing records originate from the eastern counties of England, principally Norfolk, but also occasionally from Kent, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire.   Very sparse records have been obtained from the southwest of England, and the species has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It is found in mixed, mainly broadleaf woodlands, in lowland areas below 100m. on nutrient-rich soils, and it appears not to be host specific.   It has been recorded in association with Fagus, Picea, and Abies.
In Europe there seems to have been little interest in the species.   It is included in the Danish red list where it is described as being of least concern, though relatively rare.   In Germany it is recorded sparsely.  Otherwise it is merely listed as 'widespread in Europe'.   It may be that collections are commonly mis-identified as C. gibba.

 

Clitocybe truncicola  (Peck) Sacc.
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  360
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 36 uniquely geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable, though at risk of becoming endangered.
In Britain the species has been encountered almost exclusively in the south of England, the majority of records stemming from Hampshire, Kent, and Somerset, at altitudes below 100m. in broadleaf woodlands, parks, and gardens.   It is lignicolous, growing on rotted wood, and occurs in association with various trees including, most notably, Ulmus, followed by Fagus.   There are very isolated records from elsewhere, as far north as Roxburghshire.   Principal threats included removal of brash and other fallen timber.   Occurrence has also been adversely affected by the loss of elm trees to disease.
In Europe it appears that distribution is widespread, but poorly reported.   In Denmark it is, for example, red listed as being data deficient.   In Holland it is also red listed as rare with indications of very sparse occurrence.


 

Clitocybe vermicularis  (Fr.) Quél.
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  110
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 11 uniquely geo-referenced sites ( 110 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
A rarely encountered species, records being largely restricted to woodlands in the west of England, chiefly in Herefordshire and Gloucestershire, although a single location is identified in fixed dune grasslands in East Lothian, Scotland.   It occurs in lowland regions, below 200m., largely in association with coniferous trees, but it has also been recorded with Betula.
In 2015 the species was afforded the new taxon name of Rhizocybe vermicularis  (Fr.) Vizzini, G. Moreno, P. Alvarado & Consiglio.    We have, however, opted to include it here under the taxon name by which it will be more familiar to most field workers, and which has been retained in the CATE2 database.
In Europe, in the Iberian peninsula, it is described as a rare species associated with conifers.   In Finland it is also noted as a rarity, and it is red data listed in Bulgaria as an endangered species, where threats include habitat loss or degradation caused by logging, and tourism development.

 

Clitopilus daamsii    Noordel.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 40+
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 uniquely geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   However, the British population cannot realistically be estimated, and thus we have assessed it as data deficient.
In Britain, since 1994, the species has been recorded only in Gwynedd, Huntingdonshire, and Surrey in the more southerly parts of England and Wales.   More research is needed into possible new localities before any realistic assessment can be made.   The taxon is lignicolous, and appears to be associated chiefly with deciduous woodlands, growing on rotten wood and old polypore fruit bodies.    From its appearance it may easily be confused with an immature Crepidotus species, and with Clitopilus hobsonii.   This suggests that its occurrence in Britain is more widespread that records indicate.   Principal threats include removal of brash in over-zealous woodland management.  An amount of genetic profiling has been conducted on the species in recent times.   It was first named by Noordeloos in 1984.  
In Europe it is little reported.  It may be widespread though infrequently encountered, and its precise distribution remains unknown.   In Denmark and Holland, however, it is red listed and appears to be declining.   In Germany it is known from a single location in the Ammersee region.

 

Clitopilus passeckerianus    (Pilát) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 8 uniquely geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   The British population cannot reliably be estimated, however, and thus we have assessed it as data deficient.
Since 1994, the species has been very rarely recorded, predominantly in Surrey, but also in Hampshire, Suffolk, and Sussex.   More research is needed into possible new localities before any realistic assessment can be made.   The taxon appears to be associated chiefly with organically rich compost heaps, and dung-laden straw, in southern counties of England.
The fungus is known to synthesise a diterpene-type compound, pleuromutilin, effective in human antibiotic therapy.   Molecular tools are currently being researched to facilitate gene study and isolation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster in order to produce semi-synthetic derivatives.   These compounds have great potential since they belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human and veterinary application.   Further accurate field determinations seem therefore to be essential.
In Europe its distribution has been very little reported, though it has recently been subject to some mnolecular profiling work.

 

Clitopilus pinsitus   (Fr.) Joss.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 360
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 36 unique geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is lignicolous, associated with rotting wood of deciduous trees, favouring Fagus, but also occurring with Fraxinus and Ulmus, at altitudes generally below 100m.   It has been identified from one site in the Scottish highlands, and from one in North Yorkshire, otherwise it appears restricted to thermophilic woodlands in the south of England, most notably in the New Forest in Hampshire.   Principal threats include removal of brash through over-zealous woodland management.
In Europe the species appears to have earned little interest.   It is recorded from the massif central in France, and from northern Italy.


Clitopilus scyphoides   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 630
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 63 unique geo-referenced sites (630 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species occurs mainly in mixed and deciduous woodlands, favouring sandy and loamy soils, at altitudes below 250 metres.   Records are largely concentrated in the more southerly counties of England, but limited records also exist from as far north as Northumberland.   The species has not been recorded from Scotland.   C. scyphoides can be confused with the very commonly occurring C. prunulus, but it produces distinctly smaller fruit bodies, and has a non-farinaceous odour.
In Europe there appears to have been little interest in the species.

 

Cystolepiota adulterina    (F.H. Møller) Bon
Previous assessment:  VU (1992);  NE (2006)
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 490
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 49 unique geo-referenced sites (490 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The distribution of this species is largely restricted to the counties of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire, with other limited records obtained from elsewhere in the south of England, and very occasional  records from further north.   It does not occur in Scotland or Wales.  It is mainly associated with Fagus in humus-rich deciduous woodlands, on calcareous soils.   The species is also reported to occur frequently in association with Urtica.   It is found at altitudes that rarely exceed 150 metres.   Some records were previously attributed to Lepiota hetieri.
In Europe the species is considered to be extremely rare in the areas of central and western Europe where it has been recorded.

 


Cystolepiota fumosifolia   (Murrill) Vellinga
Previous assessment:  VU (1992);  NE (2006)
2016 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being critically endangered.
This is a very rare species, largely restricted since 2000 to a few sites in the west of England,  with some further isolated records from Kew Gardens, Surrey, between 1982 and 2007.  It is known to be thermophilic, and would appear to favour nutrient-rich soils and parks and gardens, but appears not to be host-specific.   The species has been recorded previously as L. luteicystidiata.
In Europe the species has been identified at a few sites in nutrient-rich habitats of central Europe.   It is considered a rare species in the Pacific States of North America.   It has only recently been identified in Asia.  
 

Cystolepiota hetieri     (Boud.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   NT
Mature individuals: 1180
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 118 unique geo-referenced sites (1180 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being near threatened.
Aklthough widespread in distribution, this remains an infrequently encountered species, limited to broadleaf and mixed woodlands.   It is also one of the smallest of the Lepiota group species.  The species seems to favour organically-rich calcareous soils containing copious humus, including rotted wood, and is most frequently associated with Acer, Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus, but also with Mercurialis perennis.   An amount of molecular profiling has been carried out on collected material.
In Europe the species is known from various parts.   In Denmark, 29 locations have been discovered.     In Holland it seems to be fairly widely distributed.  It has been recorded throughout much of the United States and Canada, although very rarely.   It is also known from Australia.


 

Cystolepiota icterina  F.H. Møller ex Knudsen
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   CR D
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 uniquely geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being critically endangered.
This distinctive species appears to be restricted to occurrence in old, broadleaf woodlands, on calcareous soils, in Somerset at altitudes up to 200m.  Pincipal threats include habitat removal, thinning of woodlands, and removal of shrub layers, resulting in a drier microclimate.   It was first named in 1978.
In Europe, it is considered to be critically endangered.   In Holland a single site is known in the far south of the country.  On the Danish red data list, it is known from only eight sites, and is assessed as critically endangered.  It has been found at a single site in the extreme south of Sweden, and from two sites in northern Germany.   It has also been recorded in Belgium, and in Italy where it was identified in 1983, at a location close to Rome.

 

Cystolepiota moelleri   Knudsen (Fr.) Fr.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 25 uniquely geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species is rarely encountered, though widespread in its distribution in England and Wales as far north as Northumberland, mainly on the western side of the country.   It has not been reported from Scotland.   It occurs in mixed woodlands and parklands associated with a range of mainly broadleaf, but also coniferous trees, at altitudes rarely greater than 150m.   Some of the records were formerly determined as Lepiota rosea.
Threats are as yet unclear, but presumed to include habitat loss. 
In Europe the species is reported rarely and sporadically from Scandinavia, and from western and central areas.   It is also reported from western North America (Washington State).


 

Cystolepiota pulverulenta   (Huijsman) Vellinga
Previous assessment:  Rare (1992)
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 20 uniquely geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species occurs across a limited range of habitats, particularly in urban areas with parks and gardens, though it also tends to favour broadleaf woodlands on calcareous and clay soils.   The species appears not to be host-specific.  Its occurrence is chiefly restricted to thermophilic regions in the southern counties of England.   The furthest north it has been recorded is south Lancashire.   The species was first recorded in the UK at Kew Gardens, Surrey, in 1951.
Its status in Europe is unclear.   However, the species is included in the Dutch red list, where it is considered vulnerable.  In Holland it has been identified at less than 20 locations.

 

Hygrophorus agathosmus   (Fr.) Fr.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 240
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 24 uniquely geo-referenced sites (240 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
Largely restricted to montane coniferous woodlands, where it is ectomycorrhizal with species including  Picea and Pinus, in the Scottish Highlands and the Borders, at altitudes greater than 200m.  It is reported to show preference for calcareous soils.    It has also been recorded infrequently in southern counties of England, including Wiltshire and Buckinghamshire.
It is considered by some to be a mediocre edible species with antimicrobial properties, making it vulnerable to foraging interests.   However, the edibility is also disputed.
The species occurs periodically in parts of Europe, Africa, Asia and is known throughout the United States.


 

Hygrophorus arbustivus   Fr.
Previous assessment:  V (1992); NT (2006)
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 360
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 36 uniquely geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species occurs in deciduous woodlands, in association with a range of broadleaf trees, most commonly with Quercus, followed by Fagus, and Castanea.   It is rarely recorded at elevations greater than 150 metres, predominantly favouring lowland, thermophilous soils in Kent, Surrey and Hampshire, in the south-east of England.   The most northerly record has been in Shropshire.   It is considered an edible species, making it vulnerable to foraging interests.
In several countries of Europe it is classed as a red data endangered species through habitat loss from agriculture, logging, infrastructure development, and forest fires.

 

Hygrophorus camarophyllus
Previous assessment:  V (1992);  VU D2 (2006)
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 8 uniquely geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, possibly borderline with being critically endangered.
The species has a very restricted distribution in Britain, in a small number of widely separated locations, in England and Scotland, at altitudes from approx. 700m. down to more or less sea level.   Literature suggests that it is generally associated with Sphagnum in coniferous woodlands.
It is considered an edible species, and is therefore subject to threats from foraging interests, as well as habitat loss from agriculture, logging, infrastructure development, and forest fires.
In Europe it is found throughout Scandinavia in pine forests with predominantly mossy floors.   It also occurs in coastal forests in the United States, most notably in the Pacific northwest.


 

Hygrophorus chrysodon   (Batsch) Fr.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 430
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 43 uniquely geo-referenced sites (430 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The attractive-looking species occurs predominantly in the southern counties of England, with occasional records coming from the Welsh border counties.   It has not been recorded from Scotland.    It is a lowland species with virtually no records evident at altitudes greater than 200m.     In Britain it occurs very largely in mycorrhizal association with Fagus in broadleaf woodlands, but also less frequently with conifers.   It is a distinctive species not readily overlooked or confused.    It is vulnerable to habitat loss from agriculture, logging, and infrastructure development.
Distribution in Europe is widespread.   In the United States it is reported to be widely distributed, although there it is chiefly mycorrhizal with conifers and only rarely occurs with broadleaf trees, and may therefore be a separate species.

 

Hygrophorus hedrychii   (Velen.) K. Kult
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 17 uniquely geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
It is described as a thermophilous species favouring humus rich, calcareous soils.  It is mycorrhizal with Betula, but is also occasionally recorded in association with Fagus and Quercus.    In Britain it has been encountered predominantly in the southern counties of England, with a scattering of records from northern English counties, and from Scotland.   It is found mostly at altitudes less than 100m.   It is considered to be an edible species that is thus vulnerable to foraging interests, as well as habitat loss from agriculture, and infrastructure development.  The species was first named in Czechoslovakia in the mid-1950s.  
In Europe it is considered to be rare, and it is included in several European red lists.


 

Hygrophorus lindtneri   M.M. Moser
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 290
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 29 uniquely geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable, but borderline with being endangered.
The species is more or less entirely restricted to the southern counties of England, the most northerly record currently being from Shropshire.   Most records have come from Hampshire and Kent, where it is associated with a range of broadleaf trees, mainly with Corylus though it is also reported with Carpinus, and Fagus,  on clay and calcareous soils.
In Europe the species is currently not known to be red listed, though it is generally regarded as rare.

 

Hygrophorus lucorum   Kalchbr.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 370
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 37 uniquely geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable, but borderline with being endangered.
The species is mycorrhizal with Larix, and its distribution is restricted to calcareous soils in mixed woodlands and plantations in the southern counties of England.   Records extend no further north than Oxfordshire, and arise predominantly in the southernmost counties of Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   It is a lowland species, rarely occurring at altitudes above 150m.
In Europe its distribution is widespread, and it has also been found at considerably higher altitudes, up to 600 m.


 

Hygrophorus mesotephrus   Berk. & Broome
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 180
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 18 uniquely geo-referenced sites (180 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species is ectomycorrhizal with Fagus, less frequently with Quercus, and its distribution is restricted to broadleaf woodlands in the southernmost counties of England, most notably the New Forest in Hampshire.   In CATE2 there is a single record, of some antiquity (1966), away from this area, in Cardiganshire in Wales.
Although edible, it is not regarded as under threat from foraging interests because of its unpalatable, slimy texture.   Its considerable rarity, however, places it under threat of habitat loss from agriculture, deforestation, and infrastructure development.
In Europe the species is considered to be rare.   It is red listed in a number of countries including Denmark and Holland.   In Czech Republic its status is regarded as being data deficient.   Very sparse occurrence is recorded in Germany and Poland.

 

Hygrophorus nemoreus   (Pers.) Fr.
Previous assessment:  V (1992);  NT (2006)
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 38 uniquely geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D)  assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is found predominantly from the southern counties of England, with a high proportion of records coming from Kent.   A scattering of records have come from Wales and Scotland.   It is a lowland species, occurring largely at altitudes below 200m.   It favours calcareous soils in broadleaf and mixed woodlands.  It is mycorrhizal with Quercus and, according to literature, with Castanea.  However, in Britain records associated with other tree species also extend to Fagus, Betula and Corylus.
In Europe the species is considered to be rare.


 

Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus  (Fr.) Fr.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 uniquely geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   Assessed as being data deficient.
Since 1965 the species has only been recorded at three British locations, in Kent, Surrey, and Worcestershire.   It was, however, recorded with accountably more frequency in previous decades.   90% of UK records are from the period 1860 to 1965, which suggest that the species is in marked decline in Britain, though why this should be remains unclear.   Further collections and investigation are needed before the species can be effectively assessed.
In Europe the species appears to be widespread in its distribution, though how commonly it occurs also remains unclear.

 

Hygrophorus penarius   Fr.
Previous assessment:  V (1992);  VU D2 (2006)
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 16 uniquely geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D)  assessed as being endangered.
With exception of two British records, from Outer Hebrides and Settle in Yorkshire, the limited number of known sites for the species are restricted to mixed woodlands in the southern counties of England.   It is chiefly ectomycorrhizal with Fagus, but has also been recorded in association with Quercus.   It favours calcareous soils in lowland habitats at altitudes of less than 200m., suggesting that it is also thermophilous.   Pincipal threats appear to include habitat loss and foraging interests.
In Europe the species is described as uncommon but can also be locally plentiful.   It is recommended as a popular edible species, particularly in France, Spain and Italy,  although some reports from elsewhere describe it as having inferior qualities.


 

Hygrophorus persoonii   Arnolds
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 580
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 58 uniquely geo-referenced sites (580 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D)  assessed as being vulnerable.
It is a thermophilous species predominantly occurring in broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with Quercus, but it is also recorded in association with Fagus and Corylus on calcareous soils.  It is also reported occasionally to be associated with Carpinus.    It is a lowland species, rarely found at altitudes greater than 150m.   With few exceptions records are limited to the southernmost counties of England, with only isolated records from Lancashire and Yorkshire, and from a single location in South Wales.  A high proportion of British records of this species were initially misidentified as H. dichrous.   Principal threats would appear to include habitat loss and foraging interests.
In Europe the species is generally regarded as rare.   It is also considered edible, though its culinary value is controversial on account of the slimy cap texture.   It is encountered commonly in the Navarra region of Spain.   In the Czech Republic it is listed as a critically endangered red data species.

 

Hygrophorus piceae  Kühner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 uniquely geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being data deficient.
The species is mycorrhizal with Picea.   There are only three British locations where verifiable records have been taken since 1966:  Black Craig and Hermitage, both in Perthshire, and Houghton Forest in Sussex.   It is generally regarded as a montane species that prefers acidic, sandy, nutrient-poor soils.   It is possible that is has been confused in the past with other white species of Hygrophorus including H. eburneus, and H. pustulatus which can appear without its more characteristic spots
In Europe it is reported from Finland, Poland, the Black Forest and other parts of Germany, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic, where it is red listed as an endangered species.


 

Hygrophorus pudorinus   (Fr.) Fr.
Previous assessment:  V (1992);  End. B (2006)
2016 assessment:   DD
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 uniquely geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being data deficient.
The species is mycorrhizal with Picea and possibly some other conifers.   There has been a single, unverified record of the species from mid-west Yorkshire in 1997, without voucher material, and a further, verified record obtained from the New Forest in 1998.   The number of pre-1965 records is also very small.  The reason for its rarity in Britain is unclear, although its range is considered to be sub-alpine.
In Europe the species is comparatively common in spruce forests, though only in certain parts.   It is  encountered extensively on the western side of North America, although there are arguments there that H. pudorinus is a mis-applied name

 

Hygrophorus pustulatus   (Pers.) Fr.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 950
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 95 uniquely geo-referenced sites (950 mature individuals).   It is assessed as near threatened, but probably of least concern.
Records of this distinctively spotted species have arisen predominantly from plantations in a limited list of three forests in the northeast of England: Kershope, Kielder, and Wark.   It is also recorded from a range of forested locations in Scotland.   Apart from an isolated record in Kent, the species is not recorded from the midlands or southern England.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   The species is not soil specific, but is colline or alpine in habit, rarely found at altitudes of less than 100m.   It is mycorrhizal with Picea,but is also reported in association with Fagus, Quercus and Tilia.   It may be that a significant future threat will result from rise in temperatures.
In parts of Europe it is described as fairly common, often fruiting in large quantities.


 

Hygrophorus unicolor   Gröger
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 520
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 52 uniquely geo-referenced sites (520 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D)  assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is mycorrhizal with Fagus on calcareous soils, and has also been recorded occasionally with Corylus and Carpinus.   With very rare exceptions British records are limited to the southernmost counties of England.   The species has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It has only been recognised as a distinct species since 1980.   Earlier records were wrongly named as H. leucophaeus and Limacium leucophaeum
In Europe it is described as uncommon.   It is red listed in Denmark and Holland.   Main threats include deforestation of the host tree species.

 

Leucoagaricus americanus   (Peck) Vellinga
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 8 uniquely geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D)  assessed as being vulnerable, verging on being critically endangered.
The species is an introduction from North America, and has been very rarely encountered in Britain.  Extant records are restricted to a few sites in Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire, Warwickshire, Wiltshire, and Surrey.   It may be mycorrhizal with Quercus.   It appears generally to be restricted to occurrence in lowlands at altitudes of less than 150m., growing in caespitose tufts on litter, including sawdust piles and woodchips.   It is often associated with disturbed ground in waste places.   The earliest British record dates from October 1976, and of the few extant records, most were first misidentified as L. bresadolae.
The species is common in eastern North America where it is synonymised with L. bresadolae.   Spread into the European mainland remains unclear.


 

Leucoagaricus badhamii
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals: 830
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 83 uniquely geo-referenced sites (830 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D)  assessed as being vulnerable .
The species occurs in a variety of habitats including parks, gardens, and mixed woodlands.   It is also occasionally found growing in greenhouses.    It tends to favour substrates of compost, rotted straw, sawdust, and bark mulch.   Some collections have been erroneously determined as L. bresadolae, and the species remains subject to a degree of taxonomic conjecture.
It is recorded in both Europe and North America where its occurrence is described as rare.   In Holland it is red listed as an endangered species.

 

Leucoagaricus barsii   (Zeller) Vellinga
Previous assessment:  NT (2006)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 20 uniquely geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D)  assessed as being endangered.
The species favours sandy and gravelly soils, and occurs predominantly in coastal regions of England and Wales, at altitudes of less than 50m.   It is associated mycorrhizally with various grasses, and it is most frequently encountered on pathsides and roadside verges.   It is not recorded from Scotland.  A number of records have previously been mis-identified as L. macrorhizus.
Throughout Europe the species is considered to be rare, although it is more widespread in the sub-tropical Mediterranean areas.   In Denmark it remains data-deficient.   It is reported to be common in the Pacific Northwest of North America.   The species has also been identified recently in northern India, and it is known from Australia.


 

Leucoagaricus carneifolius   (Gillet) Wasser
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 39 uniquely geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D)  assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is chiefly encountered in farmlands, meadows, and orchards.   British records, with rare exceptions,  are restricted to the southern counties of England.   It has, however, been recorded as far north as Loch Tummel in Perthshire.   It appears to have no particular mycorrhizal associations, and grows in proximity to a variety of broadleaf trees and shrubs.   It is a lowland species that has only rarely been recorded at altitudes above 100m.   It is frequently listed as an edible species and thus vulnerable to foraging interests.   Some authors claim that it is a variety of L. leucothites and it can be confused with the latter species.     
In Europe the species is recorded only rarely.   It is known from France, Germany, the Iberian peninsula, and parts of Russia.

 

Leucoagaricus croceovelutinus   (Bon & Boiffard) Bon
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 7 uniquely geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
An attractive-looking, though rarely reported species, the few British records are restricted to Berkshire, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Shropshire, and Surrey.  It occurs in mixed woodlands among decaying litter, and it has not been found at altitudes greater than 150m.   Reasons for its limited recording remain unclear, and it may be that the species is sometimes mis-identified with more common species.   It does not feature in many of the more popular field guides.  It may be that its status will change if better recording takes place.
In Europe little information is available about its distribution, and we can assume it is recorded very infrequently.   It is red listed in Denmark.  There are also isolated records from France and Italy.


 

Leucoagaricus crystallifer   Vellinga
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 6 uniquely geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D)  assessed as being endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
A very rarely encountered species, extant British records being limited to Huntingdonshire, Pembrokeshire and Somerset.   It is found in mixed woodlands in association with broadleaf trees including Fagus and Betula, but is also encountered in wetland areas such as fens and salt marshes.   It was first identified as a distinct species in 2000.
In Europe the species is generally regarded as being poorly determined or poorly recorded.   In Denmark, for example, it is only known from two sites and is red listed, but it is also considered to be data deficient.   It is found at about four widely separated locations in Holland where it is decribed as extremely rare.   It has also been identified recently outside Europe, in northwest India.

 

Leucoagaricus georginae   (W.G. Sm.) Candusso
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 25 uniquely geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
In Britain, other than in a very limited number of instances, the species is restricted to mixed woodlands in the southern counties of England.    It has also been found in Cheshire on the National Trust Styal estate, and in Caernarvonshire at Porthmadog.   It is mainly associated with coniferous trees, but is also occasionally recorded with Alnus, Castanea, and Corylus.   It generally occurs at altitudes below 100m. and is said to favour nutrient rich, sandy soils.   Earliest British records stem from 1972.
In Europe the species is distributed fairly generally across Holland, where the threat level is described as moderate.   It has been recorded in 2011 on an island in France, and is described as very rare.   It is found also very rarely in the Iberian peninsula.   Elsewhere its distibution is little discussed.


 

Leucoagaricus ionidicolor   Bellù & Lanzoni
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 9 uniquely geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D)  assessed as being endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
British records of the species have been restricted to the more southerly counties of England.   It has been recorded in association with various broadleaf and coniferous trees, chiefly the latter, in mixed woodlands and parklands.   It appears to be thermophilic.   The species has been recorded by the Cotswold Fungus Group at Batsford Arboretum.   Some limited molecular profiling has been carried out.   The species was first recognised in the Czech Republic in 1988.
In Europe, isolated collections have been made in France (2008) and in Scandinavia.   It is generally regarded as rare in the continent, found chiefly in coniferous woodlands in more southerly regions.   There are no recards showing from Holland, and very limited records from the Czech Republic (central Bohemia), Italy, and the Iberian peninsula.   There is a single location known in Germany.   Though there are no reliable records, it is described as strongly endangered in Hungary.

 

Leucoagaricus marriageae   (D.A. Reid) Bon
Previous assessment:  R (1992)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 21 uniquely geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
Apart from a few records collected on the Welsh border, and a single doubtful record from Edinburgh, all remaining British records of the species stem from counties in the southern half of England.   Its main stronghold appears to be Somerset, with other significant records coming from Surrey and Kent.   The species appears to have no particular mycorrhizal associations, and has been recorded in mixed woodlands associated with a range of broadleaf and coniferous trees.   It is a lowland species that has not been recorded at altitudes greater than 150m.   It is considered thermophilic.   To date, there appears to have been very little further investigation about the distribution of the species, and further observation seems necessary.
In Europe the species is recorded rarely in the Iberian peninsula, in various termophilic woodlands, generally associated with Pinus.   It is known from the Czech Republic.   Otherwise we can obtain little information about its distribution.

 

Leucoagaricus melanotrichus   (Malençon & Bertault) Trimbach
Previous assessment:  not assessed.
2016 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 6 uniquely geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   Although statistically just outside the threshold set by IUCN, we have assessed this species as being critically endangered.
A very rare species that was not identified until 1970, its occurrence appears to be restricted to southern counties of England, including Devon, Huntingdonshire, Kent, and East Anglia, where it is found in a few widely separated broadleaf and mixed woodlands.   No specific mycorrhizal associations have been detected.  It appears, however, to be thermophilic, and has not been recorded at altitudes greater than 80m.
In Europe it is reported from Spain where it occurs in the Asturias region.

 

Leucoagaricus meleagris   (Gray) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed.
2016 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 uniquely geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   The species could have been described as being data deficient, but in view of the paucity of records elsewhere in Europe we feel that critically endangered is more appropriate.
A very rare species found growing in association with woodchip in only three locations, in open woodlands in Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, and Surrey.   The first British record dates from 2001, and its has not been recorded since 2004.   The fact that it has not been recorded here in the last ten years raises questions about its viability and it may be extinct in Britain.
In Europe the species occurs to a very limited extent.   It is red data listed in Holland.  It is reported from Sweden.   It also occurs in eastern and central parts of North America.


 

Leucoagaricus nympharum   (Kalchbr.) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed.
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 350
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 35 uniquely geo-referenced sites (350 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
In Britain it is found predominantly in association with coniferous trees including Abies, Cedrus, Picea and Pinus, but also occasionally with broadleaf species including Crataegus and Fagus, in mixed woodlands and plantations, in scattered locations throughout England, and as far north as southern Scotland.   The species favours acidic soils.   It has not been reported from Wales.   A number of records were originally mis-identified as Macrolepiota puellaris.
In Europe it has been recorded from spruce forests in the Czech Republic, Denmark,  and in Poland.   It is considered rare throughout the continent, but may also have been overlooked, confused with other Leucoagaricus species.

 

Leucoagaricus pilatianus   (Demoulin) Bon & Boiffard
Previous assessment:  R (1992)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 15 uniquely geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species has not been recorded since 2011, prior to which there are scattered records, mainly from southern England and Wales, with a single record in 2000 from northeast Yorkshire.   The species appears to have no particular preferences, found in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, where it has been recorded at altitudes up to 200m., but also dune slacks adjacent to the sea.
In Europe it has been recorded infrequently in various parts of France, Italy and Russia.


 

Leucoagaricus serenus   (Fr.) Bon & Boiffard
Previous assessment:  R (1992)
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 550
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 55 uniquely geo-referenced sites (550 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
This pure white species appears largely restricted to broadleaf and mixed woodlands, chiefly associated with Fagus and Corylus, less so with Alnus.    It has been reported to favour sandy soils in wet areas close to river and stream banks.   In Britain the strongest concentrations are in the southernmost English counties of Hampshire, Kent, and Somerset.   It has been recorded occasionally in Wales, and as far north as Mid Lothian in Scotland.   It is essentially a lowland species, rarely found at altitudes above 100m.   It may, at times have been mis-identified as L. crystallifer from which it cannot be readily distinguished in the field, and which tends to occur in similar habitats.
In Europe, it has been reported periodically from Holland, and also from France, Italy, and the Czech Republic.   In Scandinavia it is regarded as data deficient, very rare but possibly also overlooked.

 

Leucoagaricus sericifer  (Locq.) Vellinga
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 540
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 54 uniquely geo-referenced sites (540 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is very largely confined to the southernmost counties of England, predominantly Cornwall, Somerset, Surrey, and Wiltshire.   It has been recorded infrequently as far north as Edinburgh in Scotland.    It is a thermophilic species that occurs at altitudes rarely above 100m., in broadleaf and mixed woodlands, almost wholly in association with broadleaf trees, generally Fagus.
In Europe it is a fairly common species.  It occurs in Denmark, which probably marks the northermost limit of its range, and where it is red listed as being of least concern.   It is also noted in France, Holland, Hungary, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Spain.


 

Leucoagaricus subcretaceus   Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 uniquely geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   The species is assessed (Criterion D) to be critically endangered.
A very rarely encountered, though large and distinctive species, last recorded in 2005.   British records are limited to single locations in Berkshire, Surrey, Warwickshire, and Yorkshire.   The species had not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   There appear to be no specific mycorrhizal associations.   According to literature the species favours nutrient-rich soils, and rotting debris in lawns, grasslands, damp meadows and woodland margins.    Its appearance may have resulted in the erroneous naming of some collections as species of Macrolepiota.   An amount of genetic profiling has been carried out.
In Europe the species is generally considered to be very rare.

 

Leucoagaricus sublittoralis
Previous assessment:  R (1992);  NT (2006)
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 21 uniquely geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
Despite its name the species is not restricted to locations close to the sea.   It has been recorded in mixed woodlands, on heaths, and, only occasionally, in dune slacks.   Generally, however, it is associated with sandy soils, less frequently with clay soils.  British records are largely limited to the southern counties of England, and to a single Welsh location, in Caernarvonshire.   The species has not been recorded in Scotland.
It has been reported from various parts of Europe.   It is found occasionally in Denmark, but is mainly of southern distribution.   it is described as being rare, largely confined to coastal areas.   Both in Denmark and the Czech Republic it is listed as a red data species.


 

Leucoagaricus tener   (P.D. Orton) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  CRE D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 uniquely geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   The species is assessed (Criterion D) to be critically endangered, and possibly now extinct in Britain.
A very rarely encountered species, records are restricted to a few southern counties of England in mixed and broadleaf woodlands of Herefordshire, Hertfordshire and Kent, and on a west Somerset heath.     It appears to favour rich clay soils.   The earliest British record dates only from 1978.   However, the species is possibly now extinct in Britain, since it has not been recorded since 2001.
In Europe the species seems to be widespread in occurrence, but universally rare.   It has been recorded occasionally in Asturias, northern Spain, and in the Algarve, Portugal.   It is found rarely in Denmark and is listed as data deficient on the country's red list.   It is also recorded in the western part of Holland, where it is again red listed.

 

Leucoagaricus wichanskyi   (Pilát) Bon & Boiffard
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 3 uniquely geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   The species is assessed to be data deficient, though probably critically endangered (Criterion D).
A very rarely encountered species in Britain, records restricted to a few southern counties of England at locations in Cornwall, Kent, and Surrey.   It appears to be associated with broadleaf woodlands, in grassy soil, and to be thermophilous.    Its distribution, however, remains poorly known.  The earliest British record dates from 1983, and it was most recently reported in 2013, at Hayle in west Cornwall. 
The species is rare throughout Europe.   It is red listed in Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, and the Rostov region of Russia.   In Germany it is listed as very rare, potentially endangered.  In France it is described as data deficient. 


 Leucocoprinus ianthinus  (Sacc.) P. Mohr
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  LC
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 8 uniquely geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   Owing to its status as an introduced exotic, the species is assessed to be of least concern.
An introduced exotic of tropical origin, it is thermophilic and the species is thus restricted in its occurrence to garden greenhouses and hothouses.   It is not known in nature. 

 

Leucocoprinus straminellus  (Bagl.) Narducci & Caroti
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  LC
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 17 uniquely geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   Owing to its status as an introduced exotic, the species is assessed to be of least concern.
With very rare exceptions the species is restricted in its occurrence to the south of England, where it occurs most frequently as an exotic in pots in garden greenhouses.   Only rarely has it escaped into nature.   It is thermophilic.   Earlier records, prior to 1995, when the current taxon name was introduced, were listed as L. denudata.
In Europe, occurrence is generally restricted to greenhouses, and the species is not usually assessed for red data purposes.   It occurs periodically in nature, but only in more southerly latitudes.


 

Lyophyllum eustygium   (Cooke) Clémençon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 330
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 33 uniquely geo-referenced sites (330 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable, though it may well be close to becoming endangered.
The species appears to be associated with a range of broadleaf trees, chiefly Quercus, but also with Cedrus atalantica.   Records derive mainly from the south of England though there are occasional records from north Yorkshire,  Perthshire in Scotland, and Caernarvonshire in Wales.   In Britain it is essentially a lowland species found at altitudes not greater than 250m.
In Europe, the occurrence of the species is generally rare.   It is red listed as being endangered in Denmark, where it is known from only eight localities, and is believed to be in decline through habitat degradation.  It is also red data listed in Norway.   In the Czech Republic it is described as rare, but there it is encountered at higher altitudes, in spruce forests.   It Germany it is listed as extremely rare.

 

Lyophyllum fumosum   (Pers.) P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 630
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 63 uniquely geo-referenced sites (630 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
This is a distinctive species, associated with a range of broadleaf and coniferous trees, and found at the sides of paths and rides in mixed woodlands, parkland, cemeteries, and also on roadside verges.   It favours nutrient-rich soils.   The species is widespread in its distribution, though mainly concentrated in the south of England.   A single Scottish location was identified in 2006.   Principal threats may include an increase in foraging interest.
In Europe it is generally uncommon, though frequency varies.   In Denmark it is sporadic in fruiting.   In the Iberian peninsula it is described as a rare species, occurring at montane altitudes, mainly associated with conifers.   In Germany and Italy, by contrast, it is described as common.   It is a popular edible species in Europe, which exacerbates its vulnerability.


 

Lyophyllum infumatum   (Bres.) Kühner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 uniquely geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being critically endangered (Criterion D) though it may also be data deficient.
The species has been recorded at a very small number of locations in Britain since 1967, in Mid Lothian, Herefordshire, Northumberland, and Surrey.   It occurs in mixed woodlands and parklands in association with broadleaf trees, mainly Fagus, but also with conifers.
In Europe the species appears to show a preference for late season fruiting.   In Italy and Spain it has been recorded to favour occurrence in Atlantic Cedar forests.

 

Lyophyllum konradianum   (Maire) Kühner & Romagn.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 uniquely geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being critically endangered (Criterion D) though it may also be data deficient.
The species has been very rarely recorded in Britain since 1974, at only seven locations, restricted to southern England and the Isle of Wight, suggesting that it is thermophilic.   It has been found growing in mixed woodlands, in association with both broadleaf and coniferous trees, though it is more commonly encountered with conifers.
In Europe it is generally uncommon, though probably widespread.   It is considered rare or extremely rare in Norway, Holland, Germany, and in France, where it is known only from a single location.   It is recorded on other continents, including Australia.


 

Lyophyllum semitale   (Fr.) Kühner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 14 uniquely geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D)  assessed as being endangered.
In Britain the species appears to be of very restricted occurrence, though recorded in places as widely separated as south Devon, and Inverness in the Scottish highlands.   It has been recorded growing at various altitudes between 15m. and 350m.   The species is chiefly associated with Pinus but also less frequently with broadleaf trees including Corylus and Ulmus.   It has been suggested in literature that it may also favour old fire sites.
Throughout Europe the species is considered to be very rare.   It is recorded with Pinus in the Navarra region of Spain.   It is found very occasionally from about 40 locations in Scandinavia, including Sweden, where it is currently regarded as near threatened.   In Holland it is red listed as being seriously threatened.    It is also very rare in Germany, Latvia, and in Italy where it appears restricted to the Lazio region.   The species also occurs on other continents including Australia and North America.

 

Melanoleuca albifolia   Boekhout
Previous assessment:  V (1992) (as M. leucophylla)
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 120
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 12 uniquely geo-referenced sites (120 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D)  assessed as being endangered.
The species has been recorded in a limited number of British locations since 1974, extending geographically from Kent on the south coast of England, to Perthshire in Scotland.   It appears to favour dune grasslands, where it has generally been found to be associated with Betula and Salix.   Principal threats may include coastal erosion and ineffective sand dune management.  The species has only been recognised under its current name since 1988, prior to which limited European records were listed as M. leucophylla.  The species is not dissimilar morphologically to M. polioleuca.    Some authors consider that M. albifolia should be a synonym of M. friesii.  
In Europe the species is rare.   It occurs, infrequently, in scattered dune grasslands in Holland, where it is red data listed as 'sensitive'.   Threats are not specified.   It has also been recorded in Belgium.

 


Melanoleuca cinereifolia   (Bon) Bon
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 450
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 45 uniquely geo-referenced sites (450 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species has precise ecological requirements, and is largely restricted in its occurrence to fixed dune grasslands, other grassy places close to the sea, and maritime woodlands.   There are a limited number of isolated records away from immediate coastal areas.   It is most commonly associated with Ammophila.   Occurrence is geographically wide-ranging, from Sutherland in the north of Scotland, to north Cornwall in the southwest of England.
The species has been recorded in coastal regions or dunes throughout Europe.   It is recorded extensively along the entire coastline of Holland where it is considered to be least threatened.     It has also been found in various other parts of the world, away from Europe, in different habitats, including the temperate forests of north Pakistan.

 

Melanoleuca graminicola   (Velen.) Kühner & Maire
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 10 uniquely geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species is rarely encountered in Britain, but where it does occur it favours grassy places and disturbed ground in gardens, parks, churchyards, woodland margins, and woodland glades.   It is mycorrhizal with a number of species of grasses, and appears to be thermophilic.   Records are restricted to the southern counties of England.  It may, however, also be confused with M. melaleuca.
The species seems to be slightly more frequent in Europe.   It is reported from a limited number of areas in France, northern Spain, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic.   Reports suggests that it is also widespread in North America,  particularly in the Pacific northwest, but that it may again often be mis-identified as M. melaleuca.


 

Melanoleuca langei   (Boekhout) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 310
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 31 uniquely geo-referenced sites (310 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable, but bordering on endangered in view of a concentration of locations in one area of the southwest of England.
The species occurs chiefly in open broadleaf woodlands, but has also been recorded in parks and gardens, and on golf courses, generally in grassy places.  Although the main concentration of records comes from Gloucestershire, occurrence elsewhere in Britain has been wide-ranging if sporadic, from Mid Lothian in Scotland, to the south coast of England.   The species is generally considered to be thermophilic, which may account for its distribution being largely restricted to lowland altitudes.   Many of the British records for this species, prior to 1990, were recorded as M. brevipes sensu NCL.      It has also been recorded as M. polioleuca forma langei.
In Europe its largest concentrations occur in the Mediterranean region.   It has not been recorded in Scandinavia, but has been recorded fairly extensively in Holland where it is not currently regarded as threatened.

 

Melanoleuca nivea   Métrod ex Boekhout
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 17 uniquely geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, rather than vulnerable, especially in view of the narrow concentration of locations in the southwest of England.
Records of the species have been gathered primarily from mixed woodlands in lowland regions of Wales, and the southwest of England, at altitudes below 150m.   The main concentration of records appears to have come from the Forest of Dean in west Gloucestershire.   The species seems not be host specific, and has also been recorded from fixed dune grasslands.   The species was first described in 1962 by Métrod.   British records stem from as late as 1970, and have often been recorded as M. subpulverulenta.   
The species is considered to be rare throughout much of Europe.   It is red data listed as endangered in Holland, where it appears restricted to poor sandy soils in very scattered locations.   It is not specifically red data listed in other parts of Europe, including France and the Czech Republic.

 

Melanoleuca oreina   (Fr.) Kühner & Maire
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 11 uniquely geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species appears not to be host-speciific, but has been frequently recorded in association with conifers, and also with Eucalyptus.   It is found in parkland, cemeteries, and open woodlands, in a limited number of locations throughout Britain, including south east Scotland, and some eastern counties of England.    There are also isolated records from Gwynedd in Wales.   The name M. polioleuca forma oreina, and an assortment of other synonyms were formerly mis-applied to the species.
In Europe its distribution and associations are poorly understood, and it seems not to be currently afforded any red list protection.

 

Melanoleuca pseudoluscina   Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 120
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 12 uniquely geo-referenced sites (120 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
There are limited British records from fixed dunes at Stackpole Warren NR, and Whiteford Burrrows, in Wales, also from coastal grasslands at Invernaver in Sutherland, Scotland.    Other British records, however, and in some contrast, are confined to a number of sites in south Wiltshire, where it is reported to be occurring in mixed woodlands, on chalky soils, generally in association with Fagus, at altitudes generally below 150m.   More research may be need to clarify the taxonomy of the species, and indeed recent molecular profiling suggests that M. pseudoluscina records may in fact relate to two separate species. The species was not known prior to 1979.   It is stated by Boekhout (1988) to be a rare species associated with grasslands in coastal dunes.
In Europe, very rare occurrences are recorded in Holland, adjacent to the seaboard.   It occurs in Norway and in Germany, mainly in more southerly parts.   It has also been recorded occasionally on dunes in southern France, Spain, in the Balearic Islands,  and on sandy river banks in Slovenia.


 

Melanoleuca schumacheri   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  VU (1992);  NT (2006)
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 14 uniquely geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species favours coastal regions, and is most commonly found in fixed dune grasslands, but also occasionally in parks and gardens, again associated with grassy soils.   Some authors also associate it with host species including Fagus and Quercus, in broadleaf woodlands.
In Europe the species has been reported occasionally from Scandinavia, in Norway and Sweden, also from very isolated locations in Denmark and Germany.   Otherwise distribution and frequency is poorly understood and it is regarded as data deficient, although it is also considered to be very rare.

 

Melanoleuca strictipes   (P. Karst.) Jul. Schäff.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 510
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 51 uniquely geo-referenced sites (510 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is recorded predominantly in parks and gardens, as well as in mixed woodlands, at altitudes up to 200m.  Its distribution in Britain appears to be almost entirely restricted to the English counties, chiefly on the west side of the country, with an isolated location reported in Denbighshire/Clwyd.   It has not been reported from Scotland.  The species was identified prior to 1951 as Tricholoma strictipes.  
In Europe it is generally described as widespread, occurring in upland meadows.


 

Melanoleuca stridula   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 20 uniquely geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, but perhaps more realistically is under-reported and vulnerable.
Within the limit of current recording, it has been identified in parklands, mixed woodlands, and scrub, in the midlands and south of England, at altitudes below 200m.  It appears not to be host-specific, but is reported most frequently in grassy soils.
In Europe its occurrence is comparatively more common.

 

Melanoleuca subpulverulenta   (Pers.) Singer
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 39 uniquely geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species favours nutrient-rich soils in the more grassy areas of parks, gardens and open woodlands.   Occurrence is largely confined to altitudes below 150m.   The main areas in Britain from which it has been recorded appear to be mixed woodlands in Gloucestershire, with lesser number of records coming from woodlands as far north as mid-Yorkshire.   There is an isolated 2008 record from Aberdeenshire in Scotland, but it has not been recorded so far in Wales.   The species appears not to be host specific, since it is found with both broadleaf and coniferous trees, though the largest share of extant records, where an associated organism is cited, are with Pinus.   Some molecular profiling has been carried out on this species.
In Europe its occurrence appears to be very patchy.   It is, for example, known from only three, widely disparate locations in Holland, where it is described as being extremely rare.   It is red listed in Denmark, where it is known from a single location.   It is not recorded in Sweden.   Its distribution in Germany, where it is also red listed, is limited to a few sites.


 

Melanoleuca verrucipes   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 280
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 28 uniquely geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable, bordering on endangered.
This highly distinctive species, with a black dotted stipe,  appears not to have been recorded in Britain before 2000, although it was first identified in 1938.   The first known British record is from Highgate Woods in the London area.   The majority of records extend from 2009 onwards.   It has only been recorded in England at a few sites, though these range from the Liverpool in Lancashire, as far south as coastal regions of south Devon.   It often favours path sides, roadside verges and parklands, in association with sandy soils, where it tends to grow principally on woodchip substrates.   It is a lowland species, rarely found at altitudes higher than 150m.     Some molecular profiling has been carried out.
In Europe it is described as being comparatively rare, but with an increasing population.   It is red listed in Holland and the Czech Republic, though considered not to be specifically threatened.

 

Pholiota astragalina   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  Rare (1992); CRE (2006)
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals:  50
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 5 uniquely geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being data deficient.
The species is lignicolous and appears restricted to growth on rotting coniferous wood, mainly of Pinus and Picea.   There is a very small number of British records, three in 1938 from the Scottish highlands, a single questionable record from Hampshire in 1995, and a more recent record from Stourhead in Wiltshire in 2009.   More records are required before its status can be properly established.
 P.astragalina is mainly a North American species in areas ranging from the northeast, the Pacific northwest, and California.   It also has fairly limited occurrence in parts of western and central Europe including France, Sweden , Germany , Italy, Switzerland, and Poland.


 

Pholiota adiposa  (Batsch) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1090
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of  109 uniquely geo-referenced sites (1090 mature individuals).   It is assessed (Criterion D) as being near threatened.
Occurrence of the species is mainly concentrated in the more southern counties of England, though it is recorded as far north as Lincolnshire.    Further north, occurrence becomes very sparse.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes above 100m., and it is chiefly restricted to broadleaf woodlands, and parks.  The species is lignicolous, and grows in dense clusters on living and dead wood of broadleaf trees, favouring Betula and Fagus.  It causes a damaging rot in living trees.  The species is widely proclaimed as being edible, and is claimed to offer both antimicrobial and cancer-retardent properties.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood, and foraging interests.
In Europe it is widely distributed in broadleaf woodland locations in Holland, and in other countries, where it is not considered generally to be threatened.

 

Pholiota brunnescens   A.H. Sm. & Hesler
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of  10 uniquely geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, but which may also be data deficient.
In Britain it seems to be restricted chiefly to the southern counties of England, including Devon, Somerset, and Surrey where it has been encountered in woodlands, parks and gardens.   It has been recorded rarely from other parts, as far north as Loch Rannoch in Perthshire.   It is a rarely encountered species of lowlands, not found thus far at altitudes above 200m.   It is lignicolous, living in association with rotted and burnt wood of both broadleaf and coniferous trees.   It often occurs on the sites of bonfires, for which preference it has been dubbed the 'Charcoal Pholiota'.    Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.  The species was first named in 1968.
This is mainly a North American species from the Pacific northwest and as far south as California.  In Europe it is uncommon.   In has been very recently recorded growing on woodchip in Holland.


 

Pholiota conissans  (Fr.) M.M. Moser
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1070
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 107 uniquely geo-referenced sites (1070 mature individuals).   It is assessed (Criterion D) as being near threatened.
The species is mainly lignicolous, occuring on rotting wood, chiefly of Salix and Alnus, but it is also found in association with dead herbaceous material.   Its range is almost entirely confined to lowlands in England, at altitudes of less than 150m., and only as far north as Yorkshire.   It is most frequently encountered in marshy areas and wet meadows.   It has very rarely been reported from Scottish lowlands, and only occasionally from Wales.   Principal threats include draining of wetlands, and habitat removal.
The species is considered to be either rare or overlooked, though probably fairly widespread in Europe.   It is described, for example, as questionably rare in Denmark.

 

Pholiota jahnii    Tjall.-Beuk. & Bas
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  510
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 51 uniquely geo-referenced sites (510 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
A very distinctive, lignicolous species that is associated with rotting wood of broadleaf trees, chiefly with Fagus,  less commonly with the wood of coniferous trees.  It is found in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens in lowland regions of Britain.   It is rarely found at altitudes above 150m.   It has been recorded predominantly in the south of England, most notably in Kent and Surrey.   There are occasional records from south Yorkshire, and a handful of records come from lowland areas in Scotland.   The species has not been recorded in Wales.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
In Europe occurence is widespread, though it is not frequently encountered.   It has been recorded from Denmark, France, Germany, Piedmont in northern Italy, and from the Czech Republic.


 

Pholiota lenta   (Pers.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  700
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 70 uniquely geo-referenced sites (700 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species is lignicolous and in Britain it is associated with rotting wood of both broadleaf and coniferous trees, chiefly with Fagus, in mixed woodlands.  It is found in parks and gardens in lowland regions as far north as the southern counties of Scotland.   It rarely occurs at altitudes above 150m.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
Its occurrence is widespread and fairly common in Europe.   It is also found commonly in North America.

 

Pholiota limonella   (Peck) Sacc.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  370
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of  37 uniquely geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
A lignicolous species, wholly associated with the rotted wood of broadleaf trees, most commonly Betula, Fagus, and Fraxinus.    It is a predominantly a species of lowlands, rarely found growing at altitudes above 200m.   Records for the species, though fairly limited, are widely dispersed in Britain, ranging from Sutherland in the north of Scotland, to Anglesey on the west coast of Wales, and southeast to the Kent coast.    The greatest concentration of records comes from the New Forest in Hampshire, and from scattered woodlands in Somerset.      Principal threats include foraging and removal of fallen timber.
In Europe it is comparatively infrequent, and is described as being associated chiefly with the wood of Betula, Alnus, but also Abies.


 

Pholiota lubrica   (Pers.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  220
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 22 uniquely geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
A lignicolous species associated with the rotten wood and woody litter of both broadleaf and coniferous trees, often fruiting in obvious clusters.   It appears not to be host specific, but is restricted in its distribution to lowland areas at altitudes rarely exceeding 250m.   It has been recorded chiefly from the southern half of England, most notably in the New Forest in Hampshire.   It is, however, also found occasionally as far north as Peeblesshire in Scotland.   It has not been recorded from Wales.   Although there are scattered records dating from the mid-19th century, most recording has taken place from the 1970s onwards.   Principal threats include removal of fallen timber.   It is not thought to be of particular foraging interest.
The species is uncommon in Europe.

 

Pholiota lucifera   (Lasch) Quél.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 20 uniquely geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
This very distinctive lignicolous species arises from tree roots and other buried wood in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens.   It appears not to be host specific, and has been found in association with an assortment of both broadleaf and coniferous trees.    Records suggest that its range is restricted to lowland regions of Britain, rarely occurring at altitudes above 200m.     Its chief strongholds appear to be Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, and Worcestershire, with only limited records obtained from outside of southern England.   it has been found in Yorkshire and Invernesshire.
Its occurrence in Europe is widespread,  but it is considered infrequent or rare.   It is, for example, known from only four sites in Denmark where its red data status is vulnerable.   In Holland its status is classed as very rare, generally in damp areas, with fallen willow wood, along river banks.   In the Czech Republic it is described as being of 'scattered occurrence'.


 

Pholiota mixta   (Fr.) Kuyper & Tjall.-Beuk.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  240
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of  24 uniquely geo-referenced sites (240 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
This is a rarely encountered lignicolous species, largely confined to locations in the midlands and south of England, although limited records have been obtained from as far north as Morayshire in Scotland.   The species appears not be host specific, and can be found arising from rotted wood of both broadleaf and coniferous trees.  It is found mainly in lowlands, generally at altitudes of less than 200m.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
In Europe, we have discovered little information about the frequency of the species.   It is red listed in Holland as a rarity found at a limited number of sites in the east of the country, chiefly arising from dead wood of conifers.    It appears to be more abundant in areas where there is extensive coniferous forestation.   It is common in the forests of Poland,  the Czech Republic, and Russia.

 

Pholiota pinicola   Jacobsson
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  70
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 7 uniquely geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, perhaps critically so.
As its name suggests this is a rare lignicolous species of coniferous plantations, and mixed woodlands including conifers, where it is found arising from rotted wood, particularly of Pinus but also of Picea.   Apart from an isolated record from Snipe Dales in Lincolnshire, possibly a doubtful determination, distribution appears to be restricted to Scottish forests.   The species occurs at a range of altitudes from colline to lowland riverine.   It was proposed in 2011, by (Jacobsson) Noordeloos, to re-name the species Flammula pinicola.   However, most reference works still include the species under the name Pholiota pinicola.    Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
In Europe the species is recorded from limited areas of pine forest in Navarra, in Spain, where it is described as rare, despite abundance of pine trees.   It is now considered extinct in Holland and is red listed in Germany.   It occurs occasionally in the eastern Pyrenees.


Pholiota scamba
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  380
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 38 uniquely geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
A lignicolous species, essentially of upland regions, at altitudes above 200m., it is found mainly in the Scottish highlands, in Aberdeenshire, Invernesshire and Perthshire, with a very sparse number of locations identified in England and Wales.   Chiefly found in coniferous forests, associated with the rotted wood of Pinus, but also growing on dead wood of Larix and Picea.   The species is clearly altitude and temperature sensitive, and in Britain the Scottish highlands is probably more or less southermost limit of its range.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood and climate change.
In Europe the species is red data listed as being of least concern in Denmark, and is said to be not uncommon throughout the country.   It is described as rare in Latvia, and extremely rare in Holland where it is red listed as critically endangered.   It grows only at higher altitudes in the Czech Republic.  The species occurs extensively in the Pacific northwest of North America.

 

Pholiota spumosa   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  260
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 26 uniquely geo-referenced sites (260 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being borderline between vulnerable and endangered.   We have erred on the side of caution.
A lignicolous species that is found in plantations, mixed woodlands, cemeteries and gardens, in association with the rotted wood of coniferous trees including Cedrus, Cupressus, Picea and Pinus.   It occurs chiefly in colline or montane locations, at altitudes up to 500m.   Its range extends from the south coast of England, to the Scottish highlands.    Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
In Europe the species is encountered periodically in coniferous forests from the Iberian peninsula to Russia, more or less everywhere where there is fallen and dead coniferous wood available.   The species occurs in scattered locations in coastal and montane forests on the Pacific seaboard of the United States and Canada.


Pholiota squarrosa   (Vahl) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals:  1170
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 117 uniquely geo-referenced sites (1170 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being near threatened.
This distinctive lignicolous species is found growing extensively on the rotted wood of living and dead broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus and Fraxinus, throughout much of England.   It appears to be thermophilous, and its strongest concentrations are found in the in the southeast of the country, chiefly including the New Forest in Hampshire, and in Kent, and Surrey.   It is encountered only occasionally elsewhere in Britain, in lowlands in the north of England and in Scotland.   It has only rarely been reported from Wales.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood and foraging.
In Europe the species is widespread in its distribution.

 

Pholiota subochracea   (A.H. Sm.) A.H. Sm. & Hesler
Previous assessment:  V (1992);  VU D2 (2006)
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals:  10
Estimated population:  not known.   It is assessed as bing data deficient.
A lignicolous species that is associated chiefly with the dead wood of coniferous trees.   It is not clear to us, however, why it has been added to previous UK red listings in the vulnerable category.   There is a single doubtful British record from September 1900 at Rothiemurchus.   It appears to be predominantly a North American and European species.      
In Europe it has been recorded occasionally in Sweden, France, Germany  and in the Czech Republic, where it is red listed as vulnerable.   In Norway it is red listed as being data deficient.   It is noted in B., and K., Vol . 4, under the synonym P. nematolomoides.   The authors describe it as occurring rarely in montane and subalpine habitats.


 

Pluteus atromarginatus
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  540
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 54 uniquely geo-referenced sites (540 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
The species occurs in mixed and broadleaf woodlands throughout Britain, from Sutherland in the north of Scotland, to Ashclyst Forest in Devon.   It occurs chiefly, however, at altitudes of less than 200m., and is probably thermophilous, since the bulk of records derive from the southern counties of England.   It is a lignicolous species, associated with the rotten wood and litter of both broadleaf and coniferous trees.   Records have often been misidentified as P. umbrosus, and for this reason the species may be under-recorded.    Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
In Europe the species appears to be fairly frequent in occurrence and merits little attention.

 

Pluteus diettrichii    Bres.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals:  210
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 21 uniquely geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species is mainly lignicolous, of fairly distinctive appearance, and is unlikely to be overlooked.   Generally solitary in occurrence, it is found associated with the rotting wood of a number of exclusively broadleaf trees, including Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus, Carpinus and Acer, at lowland altitudes of less than 200m.   It is also recorded periodically on bare, often loamy or sandy soils, though perhaps arising from buried rotten wood.   The species has been found at a limited number of sites, chiefly in the more southerly counties of England, though it has also been recorded in Yorkshire and Westmoreland.  There are isolated records from Peeblesshire in Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.     50% of the known sites have been recorded only since 2000.   It has been confused with P. ephebeus.    Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
 The species is considered very rare in Europe.   It is red listed as data deficient in Denmark, where it has been recorded at a single location.   Elsewhere it is found very infrequently in Italy, the French Pyrenees, and Germany.


 

Pluteus griseoluridus   P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  340
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 34 uniquely geo-referenced sites (340 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
This is a lignicolous fungus that grows in association exclusively with the rotting wood of a number of broadleaf trees, at lowland altitudes of less than 200m.    With very few exceptions the species has been recorded only at sites in the southernmost counties of England, and it is probably thermophilous.   Its main occurrence appears to be in Hampshire, Kent, and Somerset.   There are isolated records from Gait Barrows NNR in Lancashire.  The species was first identified by Peter Orton in 1984.   However, records have thinned appreciably since 2000 and the species may be in decline as a consequence of woodland management policy to 'clean up' by removing fallen trunks and brash. 
In Europe, the species is encountered not infrequently in France and Italy.   Its distribution appears to be very limited in Germany with a single site listed.

 

Pluteus inquilinus   Romagn.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  430
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 43 uniquely geo-referenced sites (430 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
This is a lignicolous species, associated with the rotting wood of both broadleaf and coniferous trees, generally in lowland regions, at altitudes below 200m.   The species was first named in 1978.   It has been recorded in woodland and parkland sites throughout Britain, from Perthshire in Scotland, to the south coast of England.    Some earlier records were entered under the synonym of P. semibulbosus.   Although the species is distributed fairly widely it is, however, vulnerable to woodland management policy of  'cleaning up' by removing fallen trunks and brash.
In Europe the species is fairly widely distributed and has been recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Holland, Italy, Sweden, Slovenia, Spain.   It is Red Listed as vulnerable in Denmark.


 

Pluteus luctuosus   Boud.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  430
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 43 uniquely geo-referenced sites (430 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
A lignicolous species associated with the rotting wood of broadleaf trees, favouring Fraxinus and Fagus.   It has not been recorded on wood of coniferous trees.   It occurs generally in lowland regions, at altitudes below 200m.    It has been found in woodland and parkland sites throughout Britain, from Inverness in Scotland, to the south coast of England.    The greatest concentrations of records stem from Hampshire, Somerset, and Wiltshire.   Although the species is distributed fairly widely it is, however, vulnerable to woodland management policy of  'cleaning up' by removing fallen trunks and brash.
In Europe it occurs rarely in Italy, conversely at altitudes above 300m.   It is recorded infrequently in Poland.   There was a single collection in France in 2008.

 

Pluteus leoninus  (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals:  1160
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 116 uniquely geo-referenced sites (1160 mature individuals).   It is assessed (Criterion D) as being near threatened.
A lignicolous species, of distinctive appearance, that is associated with the rotten wood and woody debris, including sawdust, of broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus, followed by Quercus and Fraxinus.    It is reported occasionally in association with wood of coniferous trees.   Although the species is distributed fairly widely throughout Britain, its occurrence is predominantly in the more southerly counties of England in Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Sussex, and Wiltshire.    It is only infrequently encountered further north than Yorkshire.  The species rarely occurs at altitudes above 150m. and appears to be thermophilic.   It is vulnerable to woodland management policy of  'cleaning up' by removing fallen trunks and brash.
 In Europe, the species is widely distributed, though uncommon, and is mainly restricted to warmer regions.   It is reported from the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Spain and elsewhere.


 

Pluteus pellitus   (Pers.) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  V (1992)
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  620
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 62 uniquely geo-referenced sites (620 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
A lignicolous species associated with the rotting wood of broadleaf trees, favouring Quercus,  Fagus and Populus.   Very infrequently it is found on wood of coniferous trees.   It may also occur on sawdust heaps.   it occurs generally in lowland regions, at altitudes below 200m.   It has been recorded in woodland and parkland sites throughout Britain, from the Orkney Islands to the south coast of England.    The greatest concentrations of records stem from Hampshire, Kent, Somerset, and Sussex.
Recording appears to have declined significantly since 2000.   Although the species is distributed fairly widely in Britain it is, however, vulnerable to woodland management policy of  'cleaning up' by removing fallen trunks and brash.   It can be confused with P. petasatus and some authors regard the classification as controversial.
In Europe the species is generally considered to be rare.   In Poland it is described as being extremely rare.  In Russia it appears to be localised and is generally restricted to ancient (pre-glaciation) woodlands.    In parts of Italy including Lombardy, however, it is described as being 'quite common'.

 

Pluteus pouzarianus   Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  630
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 63 uniquely geo-referenced sites (630 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable.
A lignicolous species, it is generally associated with rotted wood of coniferous tree including Abies and Picea.   Although not falling into any of the seriously threatened categories, P. pouzarianus is popular as an edible species, and is therefore at risk of depletion from foraging as well as through removal of dead wood.
In Europe the species is comparatively frequent in coniferous woodlands.   It occurs in Holland in forests that have rich sandy soils, but it is considered to be moderately rare.  In Denmark it is red listed, though as being of Least Concern.   In the Czech Republic the species is considered to be relatively abundant.


Pluteus pseudorobertii   M.M. Moser & Stangl
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment: DD
Mature individuals:  40
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 4 uniquely geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   It is assessed as being data deficient
A rare lignicolous species occurring chiefly with Fagus that has only been recorded at three lowland sites in Britain, in Herefordshire, Huntingdonshire and Suffolk since 1980, and no records have been entered since 1994.   It is known to be highly sporadic in appearance, but may perhaps be extinct in Britain.   Alternatively molecular profiling may determine herbarium material to be variants of more familiar Pluteus species.   Some sequencing has already been carried out in 2014, although there have been very few documented collections.   The species therefore remains data deficient for the time being.   Principal threats may include removal of dead wood.
In Europe it has been reported in more northerly latitudes including Sweden, Poland , Czech Republic, where it is red listed, and in southern Germany.  It is also generally considered to be Data Deficient.

 

Pluteus satur   Kühner & Romagn.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2016 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  280
Estimated population: 1-10 fruit bodies recorded at each of 28 uniquely geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as being vulnerable, though on the borderline with being endangered.
The species is generally found growing on humus rather than on wood, but most commonly in proximity to Fagus and Fraxinus, on calcareous to mildly acidic soils.   Records come predominantly from the southern half of England, but the species has been noted occasionally in northeast Yorkshire, and as far north as Angus in Scotland.   Recent molecular studies indicate that further revision of the taxonomy of P. satur, along with P. nanus and P. griseopus, may be required in the future, after more collections have been assessed.
P. satur may turn out to be sometimes confused with other look-alike Pluteus species, rather than being rare.   The taxonomy of the group to which it belongs has also come under debate.
In Europe is has been recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Sweden.


10. Site Protection and Threats

Many of the sites where red-listed species are recorded are designated Sites of Special
Scientific Interest (SSSI), National Nature Reserves (NNR), Local Nature Reserves (NR) or
Country Parks (CP).   Illustration:   Hygrophorus unicolor    NNR (2);  NR (9); CP (1).   Even so, fungi are very rarely named among the special interest features and therefore usually only receive indirect protection.

Threats to sites include:
• Habitat loss through development, tree felling (e.g. sweet chestnut).
• Appropriate management at inappropriate times such as carrying out mowing,
leaf blowing and mechanical bracken control during the fruiting season; use of tractors in
wet conditions leading to localised ploughing and severing of mycorrhizal roots.
• Lack of management such as allowing coarser vegetation to encroach, e.g. bramble,
bracken, grasses which inhibits fruiting and may be detrimental to fragile mycelia over
a long period.
• Picking of edible (and non-edible) fruit bodies.
• Trampling and compaction of mycelium and/or fruit bodies resulting from poorly-sited
public activities such as mountain biking, car parking and organised events with
checkpoints/refreshment/toilet areas sited on species-rich areas of parkland.

 

11. Recommendations for future recording of RDL species*

1. Estimated or actual fruit body numbers to be recorded as well as the number of discrete
patches of fruit bodies under each individual host tree or at least 10 metres apart.
2. 8-digit (GPS) grid references to be taken, where possible, for each discrete fruiting patch.
3. Targeted surveys to be undertaken of all red-listed species concentrating initially on
those sites with the longest gaps since the last records were made.
4. Voucher specimens (even a small section of a single fruit body) to be deposited in
national fungaria (RBG, Kew and Edinburgh), in instances where verification is deemed necessary.
5. Literature used for identification to be cited when a record/voucher is documented to try
to future-proof the record against taxonomic change.
6. Information on exact locations of red-listed species to be sent to owners/managers of all
designated and otherwise protected sites.

* some of these proposals are of limited practicality in the field.   On any given foray, for a recorder to be endlessly taking 8-digit GPS references, is not realistic.   Most verification can now be carried out by local group recorders and sending off large numbers of voucher specimens is, again, impractical.   Citing literature sources for e.g. 70+ species recorded on a foray is, likewise, a theoretical ideal, but largely not feasible in practice.   Most recorders will have knowledge of a given species without any clear idea of the literature from which they first established its name.

 

 

12.  Appendix A: Supplementary conditions proposed by JNCC (in italics), but not incorporated (see page 11 of this document for further information).

Summary responses are appended below.

  • 1.   Another UK database to be set up used solely for Red List assessment.
  •  
  • Response: No mention is made of the benefit, who is to design or manage this new database, who is to fund it, or how it is proposed to accommodate 2 or 3 existing databases, largely disparate in terms of technology and quality control.   It has taken the FCT nearly 10 years to achieve adequate quality.
  •  
  • 2.   The new database to be fully open for public scrutiny.
  •  
  • Response: This would render all data for all records of rare, vulnerable, endangered species available at maximum resolution to the public, including the now extensive and potentially damaging fungus foraging interest in Britain.   CATE management policy does not accommodate this, nor does management policy for the BMS' own database.
  •  
  • 3.   Draft Red Data assessments to be made available for public consultation on the web, for an undefined period of time.
  •  
  • Response: public consultation would be of doubtful benefit, encouraging those with little or no experience of data management and/or IUCN Red Data criteria and guidelines to submit views and criticisms on the validity of the assessments.   Such a policy would also inevitably result in delays to publication of future red lists
  •  
  • 4.   2 or 3 nominated professional mycologists, not necessarily from the UK, to be employed, who would scrutinise and recommend on any of those aspects.
  •  
  • Response: This rests uncomfortably with JNCCs own published terms and conditions, which include reference to their own staff carrying out scrutiny of submitted Red lists.   It must also be pointed out that the criteria and protocols for fungus Red Listing have already been agreed by JNCC/NE.  If supported, the condition would merely add further layers of bureaucracy, with little detectable benefit.
  •  
  • 5.   A further independent adjudicator to be employed to arbitrate on differences between the professional mycologists, and/or act on particular cases.
  •  
  • Response: essentially, as above.
  •  

 

  • 6.   A taxonomist to be employed to arbitrate on taxon version issues.
  •  
  • Response: See Section 4, Paragraph 6 (page 9) of this report.   Serious issues have been raised about the value to conservation, and to field operatives who carry the ultimate responsibility for monitoring any future legislation, of including some taxon versions that stem from molecular profiling.    Much of the current spate of these can only be detected using specialist equipment not available in the field.   Assessing species complexes with known (or strongly suspected) taxonomic issues has been purposefully avoided.
  •  
  • 7.   An independent fungus Red List working group to be set up of mycologists not involved in past controversies i.e. not involved with either FCT or BMS, to decide on future Red lists.
  •  
  • Response: this would require an additional layer of bureaucracy about which is is difficult to detect a potential benefit.   It is questionable how such a 'not involved' working group could arrive at objective or informed decisions on future red lists.
  •  
  • 8.   Submission to Kew of voucher validation specimens for all recorded species is recommended.
  •  
  • Response: not only would each recorder be required to pack up, fully label and first class post a parcel after each foray, but Kew (and/or other diagnostic centres) would somehow be required to deal with a large volume of perishable material arriving on its doorstep each week, when it regularly appears unable to handle its present workload.   This is also contrary to stated JNCC policy.
  •  
  • 9.   Further funding from NE or some other source required in order to meet the cost of the above.
  •  
  • Response:  Natural England has already advised teh Trust that it sees no current prospect of further funding being provided.

 

13. Acknowledgements

Thanks go to the many UK recording groups and individual recorders that support the CATE2 database with their records, and in particular the many that contribute their data via the online recording module, which saves the administration team a considerable amount of cleaning and correcting work.    These sources provide the foundation for all fungus Red List assessments.

We acknowledge the financial support for the work of the Trust by organisations including RSPB,  the National Trust, and county wildlife trusts, as well as several individual volunteer donors.   We also acknowledge the considerable professional support in the IT development of CATE2, provided by our technology consultant, Geoff Hammond, much of it carried out on a voluntary basis.

 


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