Registered Charity No. 1118651
The website of the UK's leading
charity in mycological conservation

RED LISTS OF THREATENED SPECIES

 

the FCC logo

 

3

Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi,

based on national and local database records, fruit body

morphology, and microscopic anatomy

 

Project development team:
Val Davies: Recorder, Dean Fungus Group
Paul Nichol: Chair, Cumbria Fungus Group (former Chair, Notts. Fungus Group)
Michael Jordan: Project manager; CATE2 senior manager; Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor

Professor David L. Hawksworth CBE: Foreword, final proof reading, and text editing.

This publication should be cited as:
M. Jordan, V. Davies, & P. Nichol, 2017.   Red List (3) of Fungi for Great Britain:


Foreword

It is a pleasure to introduce this third tranche of Red List assessments of the status of selected macrofungi, produced by The Fungus Conservation Trust.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) placed obligations on signatory countries to endeavour to identify and monitor their biodiversity, including species that are threatened. In order to determine what species may be under threat, it is necessary to determine their current distributions and status. The Red List system developed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) provides a framework for categorizing the conservation status of species. Considerable efforts have been made in the UK to produce assessments of some groups of organisms, through what is now the Department of the Environment and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and the statutory national conservations agencies co-ordinated by the Joint Nature Conservancy Committee (JNCC), but funding for such initiatives has been increasingly constrained.
The fungi pose a particular problem in making assessments because of the sheer numbers of species involved, 14,146 in the checklist for Great Britain and Ireland (as of 2 March 2017). The issue is compounded by the seasonality of many in forming sporophores, around 40 or so additional species being discovered for the first time every year, species concepts being clarified through molecular and microscopic studies, and limited support from a declining number of professional mycologists in universities and most major institutions.
The task of preparing Red List assessments for fungi has increasingly fallen on the citizen science community. Further, in the case of macrofungi and lichen-fungi , much of the national identification expertise, and especially field experience, now resides in the community of experienced citizen scientists and retired professional mycologists. In many areas these mycologists are organized into local Fungus Groups, with links to the British Mycological Society (BMS) and/or The Fungus Conservation Trust. The Trust has been most effective in encouraging local groups and providing a tailor-made database (CATE2) to which they can submit their records; the development of CATE2 has been especially important in view of the lack of investment in the BMS's Fungal Records Database of Great Britain and Ireland (FRDBI) over the last twenty years, though I understand there are at last some moves to ameliorate that situation.
The Trust has to be applauded for its initiative in taking on the daunting task of producing Red List assessments for our macrofungi. While there have been difficulties in getting these accepted formally by the responsible UK agencies, there can be no question that they are the best estimates we have on the current status of the treated species. These categorizations will be of value in making estimates of the conservation importance of particular sites for fungi, and also drawing attention to species where there may be a need for conservation action plans.


It is also pleasing to see that the Trust has been pragmatic over what species to include and which to omit, and in how new information arising from current molecularly-based research should be accommodated. There is now no doubt that in some fungal groups evolution at the molecular level precedes morphological diversification. This does cause problems, not only for field mycologists but all who work with fungi, but does not mean that there is no longer any point in recording using morphologically based concepts, acknowledging that this may mask some of the biological entities present. It is inescapable, however, that it will become increasingly necessary to find some way of providing molecular sequencing support to field mycologists, and for preserving representative dried voucher specimens that can be analyzed in the future.
The Trust, its constituent Fungus Groups, and particularly Michael Jordan and his team making the assessments, are to be congratulated on this further achievement advancing our knowledge of the status of our fungi. I hope that the series can be continued, and that mechanisms of supporting field mycology generally, and enhancing future assessments, can be found though national and other agencies.

Professor David L. Hawksworth CBE
Hon. President, International Mycological Association

Ashtead, Surrey, 6 March 2017.

 

 

9.   Results: assessments for RDL taxa. (omitting LC)

 

Amanita argentea  Huijsman
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D
Mature individuals: 290
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 29 unique geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals).   A small and comparatively restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.

In Britain the species is almost entirely restricted in occurence to the southern counties of England, chiefly Hampshire, Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, where it is found in mixed and broadleaf woodlands at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   There are very occasional records from Wales, and there is an isolated record in CATE2 from a lowland site in West Sutherland.   It was most recently recorded in September 2015.  The species is generally regarded as thermophilic, and is associated predominantly with Fagus and Quercus, terrestrial, on dry, calcareous and basic soils.   It may, on occasions, have been mistaken for A. vaginata.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
In Europe, the species is still frequently referred to under the old name, A. mairei.   It is encountered in broadleaf woodlands, meadows, and pastures.   It occurs chiefly in the warmer Mediterranean regions of France and Italy, but is also reported infrequently in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Slovenia, and Sweden.  In Poland it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.  It is reported as being rather more frequent in forests of southern Germany, where it is associated chiefly with Populus spp.

 


Amanita battarrae   (Boud.) Bon
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D
Mature individuals: 600
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 60 unique geo-referenced sites (600 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
Known prior to 1985 as A. umbrinolutea, over taxonomy which there remains some dispute, occurrence of the species is fairly widespread throughout England and Scotland.   It is less frequent in Wales.   The  taxon appears not to be host specific, but is mycorrhizal with a number of broadleaf and coniferous trees, most often with Quercus spp.   It is most frequently recorded in mixed woodlands, parks, and gardens, at altitudes rarely exceeding 150m., terrestrial and favouring clay and limestone soils.  It may be subject to a variety of threats that include trampling, compaction by vehicles, track maintenance, felling of host trees, and eutrophication.  It was last recorded in November 2014.  
In Europe it is recorded infrequently in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Poland, Slovenia, and Spain.   It has also been recorded in Greenland.   It is reported to be mycorrhizal with various tree species, particularly Picea, and it is generally encountered at more montane elevations, at altitudes up to 500m.   There are indications in literature that it tolerates temperatures no higher than 18C.  The species is Red Listed in Poland as being rare.   In the Netherlands it is reported to be extremely rare.   In Germany its occurence is widespread but very scattered.

 

Amanita betulae   Neville & Poumarat
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, possibly critically so, though also perhaps sometimes wrongly identified as A. fulva.
The species is mycorrhizal exclusively with species of Betula.   It is an approximate look-alike of A. fulva and may on occasions, be confused with that species.   In Britain it has been recorded in scattered locations from Kent to Perthshire, terrestrial, on soil, most often with Betula pendula, and at altitudes up to 300m.   It was last recorded in September 2014.   The principal threats would appear to include habitat loss.
The species appears to be infrequently reported in Europe, and its continental distribution is uncertain.   It is known from the Asturias region of Spain.  


Amanita contui   Bon & Courtec.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 (probably 5) unique geo-referenced sites, (50-60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, perhaps critically endangered, but which may also be data deficient, given the isolated nature of its known locations.

In Britain the species is ectomycorrhizal with Betula spp., terrestrial, on soil, and is almost wholly restricted to colline altitudes in the Scottish Highlands.   There is an isolated and very doubtful record from 1987, taken in Savernake Forest in Wiltshire.   The species has been known from 1940 when it was initially thought to be a yellowish colour variant of A. vaginata.   It was last recorded in August 2010.
In Europe the species is sometimes reported as A. flavescens.   It is knownfrom the Czech Republic, where it is described as rare, and is associated with Quercus spp.   It has been reported from Spain, associated with Fraxinus, Pinus and Quercus ilex, and also from France, Norway and Russia.  It appears to be generally very rare.

 

Amanita coryli   Neville & Poumarat
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient, though perhaps genuinely very rare.
The species was named only as recently as 2009, and is chiefly ectomycorrhizal with Corylus spp.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in broadleaf woodlands at altitudes of less than 50m.   To date, it has been recorded at a single site in Pembrokeshire, where it has been found, additionally, in association with Salix and Quercus species.   There is a further, isolated record, with Corylus, from Kew Gardens, Surrey.   It was last recorded in November 2014.   It may have been wrongly labelled in the past as one of the more common species including A. vaginata and A. fulva,both of which display a ringless stipe with a volval bag.
In Europe it is reported from France where it occurs in Corylus groves in the area of the Central Massif, but seems to have attracted little attention generally, and may frequently have been overlooked or mis-identified in the past.

 

Amanita eliae   Quél.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D
Mature individuals: 570
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 57 unique geo-referenced sites (570 mature individuals).   A moderately small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
This distinctive species is predominantly found in mycorrhizal association with Quercus spp., terrestrial, on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands in the south of England, with sparse records occurring as far north as Yorkshire and Durham.  The CATE2 database includes a single record from a lowland site in southern Scotland.   It was last recorded in July 2016.  The species appears to be thermophilic, and rarely occurs at altitudes above 130m.
Throughout Europe it is considered to be a very rare species, restricted to warmer regions.  It is encountered in France, from where it was initially described, and also from Germany, Italy, Poland, Slovenia, and Spain.  It occurs in mycorrhizal association with Betula, Corylus, Fagus, and Quercus, mainly in broadleaf forests, is less commonly associated with conifers, and it is said to favour acid soils.    It has also been reported from southern Russia.

 

Amanita franchetii  (Boud.) Fayod
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D
Mature individuals: 710
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 71 unique geo-referenced sites (710 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species occurs in mycorrhizal association with various broadleaf trees including mainly but not exclusively Quercus spp. and Tilia spp.    Records in England arise predominantly from the southern half of the country.   It appears not to have been recorded in Wales.   In Scotland it has been recorded spasmodically from as far north as Morayshire.   It was last recorded in September 2016.   The species is found in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens, terrestrial, on soil, generally at altitudes of less than 100m., though with occasional exceptions up to 200m.   It appears to favour calcareous soils and may be thermophilic.   Some sightings may have been confused with the similar-looking and very common A. rubescens.   Principal threats include changes in land management.
In Europe A. franchetii  is described as occurring most frequently with species of Quercus, Pinus, and Fagus, either solitary or in small groups.   It appears to be widely distributed throughout warmer regions of Europe where alkaline soils predominate.   It is most commonly encountered in southern France, Greece and Italy.   In the Netherlands it is described as 'fairly rare' associated with Fagus spp. and was included in the 2008 Dutch Red List.  It is currently Red listed as vulnerable in Bulgaria and noted as a rare species in Hungary.   It is also mentioned as being 'infrequent' in the Czech Republic.

 

Amanita friabilis   (P. Karst.) Bas
Previous assessment:  EN (1992); EN(B) (2006)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A small and poorly known population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, but perhaps also data deficient.
The species is tagged 'friabilis' because of the ease with which the frutbodies disintegrate, which may to an extent account for the paucity of records.  This is an ectomycorrhizal fungus, strictly associated with species of Alnus., terrestrial, on soil.   Known sites are widely scattered from Perthshire in Scotland, to Caernarvonshire in Wales, and south Devon.  It was last recorded in August 2013.   It was put forward in 2014 for global Red List assessment due to the fragmented nature of its locations, and its restricted occurence in riverine woodlands and swamps that are at risk of degradation by nitrogen pollution, habitat regression and destruction through drainage. 
In Europe it is included in the Red Data books of Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, all of which countries identify the species as being either endangered or vulnerable.   The Netherlands along with most others reports it as rarely seen.   It has been reported occasionally from Finland.

 

Amanita gemmata  (Fr.) Bertill.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1140
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 114 unique geo-referenced sites (1140 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened.
Although it occurs extensively in Europe, this distinctive,  lemon yellow-capped species is chiefly restricted to the southern counties of England, a majority of records stemming from Devon, Kent, Hampshire, and Surrey.   Records rarely extend further north than Lincolnshire.   It was last recorded in December 2016.   It is found in open, mixed and broadleaf woodlands, cemeteries, parks and gardens, terrestrial, favouring grassy and sandy soils at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It is recorded mainly in association with Quercus and Pinus spp.  We have tentatively included it here as being near threatened in Britain.    Principal threats include changes in land management.
In temperate regions of Europe, the species is widespread, generally occuring in light sandy soils.   It is found frequently, and often in abundance, in the north of the Iberian peninsula.   In Italy it is encountered most commonly in sites adjacent to the sea, chiefly associated with Pinus spp. and Cistus spp.   It is reported from mixed forests in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, and Poland.   The species is also widespread in Asia, North and South America.

 

Amanita inopinata  D.A. Reid & Bas
Previous assessment:  Rare (1992)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 22 unique geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A comparatively small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
This species first appeared in Europe in 1976.   In Britain it was initially recorded in 1987 in Kent, where it is still chiefly found.   More generally, it is restricted in distribution to the southern counties of England.   It has been encountered in coniferous plantations, parks, cemeteries, churchyards, and ornamental gardens, in lowlands at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It appears to be thermophilic.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs with a number of coniferous trees including species of Taxus and Cupressus, but there seems to be disagreement between authorities about whether it is truly mycorrhizal or saprophytic.  The conclusion must be that its ecological niche remains unclear.   Since 2010 the number of sightings appears to have diminished, though reasons for this are also unclear.   It was last recorded in October 2012.  Synonymised as Saproamanita inopinata  (D.A. Reid & Bas) Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu (2016).
In Europe the species has been found at limited locations in The Netherlands, where it is categorised as very rare, but said to be mycorrhizal with broadleaf trees.   In France it is reported occasionally, in saprophytic association with both broadleaf and coniferous trees.

 

Amanita lividopallescens  (Secr. ex Boud.) Kühner & Romagn.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); NT (2006)
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
The species is distributed through the southern counties of England and Wales.  There are no records from Scotland, and a majority of the English records come from Hampshire, Surrey and Sussex, where it tends to be found in mixed woodlands and parkland, terrestrial, in grassy soil.   It has not, however, been recorded since September 2007.   It is a species of warmer areas that rarely occurs at altitudes above 200m. and it favours calcareous soils    It is ectomycorrhizal with a range of broadleaf trees, especially Quercus spp., though it is very occasionally recorded in association with conifers.   Principal threats include changes in land management and trampling.
In Europe the species is thought to be widely distributed, though generally uncommon, extending through France, the Benelux countries, Germany, Hungary, Poland, the Balkans and western Russia.   It ranges as far south as Spain and Italy, and as far north as Norway, Sweden, and Finland.   It is also recorded in North Africa and North America.

 

Amanita nivalis   Grev.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); VU (B) (2006)
2017 assessment: VU D
Mature individuals:  350
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 35 unique geo-referenced sites (350 mature individuals).    A comparatively restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is mainly of Scottish montane distribution, though it has also been recorded in mountainous regions of north Wales, Cumberland and Westmoreland.    It generally occurs at altitudes of beetween 600m and 1000m., terrestrial, on soil.   It is found almost entirely in association with Salix herbacea and occasionally with Betula spp.  There exist some very early records from the New Forest in Hampshire, as Amanitopsis nivalis, but these must be considered doubtful.   It was last recorded in September 2014.   It was first described by Greville in 1826 when he identified the species growing at high altitudes in the Scottish Highlands for which reason it has been variously tagged the 'mountain' or 'snow' grisette.    The species may become adversely affected by climate change.
In Europe the species is effectively restricted to arctic, sub-arctic or alpine habitats.   It has been recorded as far north as Greenland.   It is recorded from the Piedmont region of Italy, and in alpine zones of the Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovenia.

 

Amanita olivaceogrisea  Kalamees
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
This species appears to be largely restricted in its distribution to the southern and midland counties of England and Wales, but extends as far north as South Lancashire.  It is found chiefly in mixed woodlands in mycorrhizal association with several tree species, most notably Corylus and Betula.  Terrestrial, on soil, it seems to be restricted to lowlands, and is rarely encountered at altitudes greater than 200m.   The largest number of CATE2 records, to date, have been obtained from sites in Buckinghamshire.   The database holds records from 1999, where a single collection was made in Cumbria, though the bulk of British records stem from the 21st century.   It was last recorded in October 2014.
In Europe the species is considered to be infrequent or rare.   It has been recorded very occasionally in Denmark, where it is Red Data listed.      In The Netherlands it is also rare, occuring in a very small number of locations, and is of sensitive Red List status.  It has been recorded from very limited locations in Finland, Norway, Poland, and Sweden.

Amanita ovoidea  (Bull.) Link
Previous assessment:  Rare (1992); VU(D2) (2006)
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient
The species is reported only from the southern counties of England, where it has been found at two sites near Marlborough, in Wiltshire, in 1973, and at a single location on the Isle of Wight in 2010 when it was last recorded.   It is generally considered to be thermophilic, and on the limit of its northerly range in Britain.   Terrestrial, it favours sandy soils in mixed woodlands, scrubby areas, parks and gardens, in mycorrhizal association with Pinus spp., and Quercus spp.   The name 'ovoidea' derives from its egg-like appearance when young.   The fruiting body is large, and of very obvious white appearance, with the fully expanded cap sometimes exceeding 25cm diameter.   Principal threats include habitat loss.
In Europe the species is generally regarded as being scarce, and it is chiefly confined to Mediterranean regions.   It has been recorded most extensively in Italy and Greece.   It is also reported from the Bages region of Catalonia, Spain, where it is generally found in mycorrhizal association with Quercus ilex.   In Bulgaria it is identified as a Red Data species, susceptible to a variety of threats including habitat loss, and acid rain.   It is identified, specifically, as being very rare in Germany and the Czech Republic. 


 Amanita pachyvolvata  (Bon) Krieglst.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as beig Data Deficient.
The very small number of British records for this species, extend from 1980, when it was first found (but at the time not identified) at Westonbirt in Gloucestershire, to 1999 when it was most recently recorded on the Mellerstain Estate in Berwickshire.   It has also been identified on the Blair Atholl Estate in Perthshire.   It is found in parklands and mixed woodlands, terrestrial on soil, and appears to be mycorrhizal with several broadleaf trees.   It is generally solitary in occurence.   It is a lowland species, not seen thus far at altitudes above 150m.   First described by Marcel Bon in 1984, it is characterised by the large size of the fruiting body, and the distinctive, persistent volva.   It may, however, be confused most notably with Amanita fulva and A. vaginata.  
In Europe, occurrence is patchy and possibly under-reported.   It has also been described as A. magnivolvata.   It has been reported from broadleaf woodlands in Italy, generally associated with Quercus spp. and Castanea spp., from the Asturias and Navarre regions of Spain, and from the Central Massif of France.   In Austria, Germany, Hungary, and Switzerland its occurence is decribed as very rare.   It has been Red Listed as data deficient in Denmark, with some records known from a park in Aarhus, and with the added comment that it may sometimes be confused with other Amanita species.


 

Amanita simulans   Contu
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   Assessed as being data deficient.
The species occurs in a variety of habitats, terrestrial, usually on grassy soils in association with broadleaf trees, and sometimes in association with Helianthemum spp.   It has not been recorded at altitudes above 300m.   It appears mainly confined to the south of England, and the furthest north that it has been identified is Derbyshire.   The species was first recorded in Britain in 2007.   The most recent sighting was on Hampstead Heath, Middlesex, in 2014, associated with Fagus sp.   It may, on occasions, have been mis-identified as Amanita vaginata.
Its European status is also poorly understood.  It has been recorded in France, where it is described as occuring in broadleaf woodlands, invariably associated with Populus spp. and Quercus spp.   It is also reported from northern Italy, in a city park in Milan, again with poplar and oak.   It has also recorded infrequently in Belgium, Bulgaria, The Netherlands and Spain.
.

Amanita singeri   Bas
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient, possibly extinct.
The species has been recorded almost wholly at Kew Gardens, Surrey, between 1990 and 2001, with a single further record taken in a cemetery at West Molesey in Surrey.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is associated chiefly with coniferous trees and occasionally with Quercus ilex.   The species is clearly thermophilic and, if it still exists in the UK, is on the most northerly limit of its range.   It may have been mis-identified in the past, though the yellow colouration of the mature gills is fairly distinctive.   It is feasible that the species will reappear resulting from climate change.  Synonymised as Saproamanita singeri  (Bas) Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu (2016).
In Europe it is rare away from the Mediterranean regions to which it is more or less confined.   The species is reported in dry grasslands, on calcareous soils, from parts of Italy, including Piedmont and Sardinia, and from France and Spain.   In 2011 it was recorded for the first time in the Balkan peninsula.   It is described from wooded meadows in the Netherlands.   However, European distribution is poorly understood.   The species has also been identified recently, by Bas, in Argentina.

 

Amanita spadicea   Pers.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
Although it has been very infrequently recorded, the species appears to be distributed geographically from Cornwall to Aberdeenshire, at altitudes generally not exceeding 150 m.   Terrestrial, on soil, it appears to be mycorrhizal chiefly with Quercus spp., in mixed woodlands, though there are a few records associated with other broadleaf and coniferous tree species.   First named by Persoon at the turn of the 19th. century, British records stem only from 2003 onwards.    It was last recorded in August 2012.
In Europe it occurs in both broadleaf and coniferous woodlands.   It is reported from various regions of France and Italy.   In other parts of Europe, including Bavaria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Serbia, it appears to favour more montane altitudes, and coniferous forests.   It is, however, generally described as 'little known'.  In some parts of Europe it is reported as edible.

 

Amanita vittadini  (Moretti) Vittad.
Previous assessment:  Rare (1992); CRE (2006)
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   An extremely small population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.
The species is terrestrial, thermophilic, favouring warm, sandy soils at low altitudes, and it appears not to be mycorrhizal.  It is on the extreme northerly limit of its range in Britain, where it has been recorded only twice, in 1976 in Oxfordshire, and 1978 at Littlehampton, Sussex.  The principal threat is habitat loss.
In Europe, the species is also a very rare thermophile, encountered on sandy soils in more southerly latitudes.   It has been recorded occasionally in grasslands in several regions of Italy, including Lazio and Tuscany, and as far south as Sicily; it is rarely encountered in Spain; in Serbia it has been recorded only twice, near Belgrade; in Bulgaria it is listed as vulnerable, and is identified as very rare in Czechoslovakia.  Synonymised as Saproamanita vittadini  (Moretti) Redhead, Vizzini, Drehmel & Contu (2016).


Armillaria borealis  Marxm. & Korhonen
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D
Mature individuals: 310
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 31 unique geo-referenced sites (310 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
By and large the species is of northerly distribution in the British Isles, almost all extant records stemming from Scotland, where it generally occurs at altitudes of 250m. or higher.   It has occasionally been recorded in England as far south as Gloucestershire and Hampshire.   Lignicolous, it appears to be associated principally with the rotting wood of Betula spp. but is also found associated with the wood of a range of coniferous trees, mainly Picea spp.   It was last recorded in August 2014.  Records appear to have reduced significantly since the mid '90s and the species may be adversely affected by climate change.   The species causes butt rot in conifers, though it rarely kills the host tree, and it is often regarded as an efficient coloniser of fresh stumps.  It can readily be confused with other species of Armillaria and often occurs with A. ostoyae and A. cepistipes.   It may also be under-recorded, or confused with more common species.  
Throughout much of northern Europe, Armillaria species are common and widely picked as edibles.

 

Armillaria cepistipes  Velen.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D
Mature individuals: 540
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 54 unique geo-referenced sites (540 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is chiefly southern in distribution, rarely occurring further north than south Lancashire.   It is very occasionally recorded in Scotland and Wales.   It is a lowland species, generally found at altitudes of less than 200m., in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, lignicolous, associated with the rotting wood of a range of mainly broadleaf trees, and apparently favouring Fagus spp.   Earliest British records stem from as recently as 1998.   It was last recorded in November 2016.   It may also be generally under-recorded, or may be readily confused with other species of Armillaria since it often occurs with A. ostoyae.   It causes butt rott of forest trees.
Throughout much of northern Europe, this and other Armillaria species are common, and widely picked as edibles.


 

Armillaria ectypa  (Fr.) Lamoure
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
A rarely recorded species, largely confined to locations at altitudes in excess of 200m in Scotland and the north of England.   It is associated with rotting vegetation.   There is a single unconfirmed record from a lowland site in Wales.   British records stem only from 1995.  It was last recorded in August 2014.   It may also be generally under-recorded, or confused with more common species.   IUCN identifies it as being confined to wetlands with low nitrogen availability, and to alkaline fens, for which reason it is commonly known as Marsh Honey Fungus.   Synonymised as Desarmillaria ectypa (Scop.) R.A. Koch & Aime (2017).
In Europe the species is described as rare across much of its range.   It is Red Listed in 11 out of 16 European and Asian countries in which it has been recorded, and where it is generally assessed as being Near Threatened.   In Europe it is native to Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland.
 

Chlorophyllum olivieri   (Barla) Vellinga
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1120
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 112 unique geo-referenced sites (1120 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened.
The species is encountered most frequently in the English border counties of Herefordshire, and Shropshire, though its range extends from Kent to mid-west Yorkshire.   It is generally encountered at lowland altitudes of less than 100 m., and it has not thus far been recorded from Scotland or Wales.   It is terrestrial, found on soil in mixed woodlands and parks, associated chiefly but not exclusively with coniferous trees.   It was first named in 2002 and British records stem more or less from that time.    It was last recorded in October 2015.
In Europe the species is found in mixed forests and in forest margins, and is prized as an edible species.   It is found fairly commonly, and is not presently considered threatened.

 


Cystoderma carcharias   (Pers.) Fayod
Previous assessment:  not assessed.
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 740
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 74 unique geo-referenced sites (mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
This distinctive species is found in scattered locations throughout England, Wales and Scotland, at altitudes ranging from near sea level to over 1000m.   Terrestrial, on soil, it appears to have no special preferences for habitat and can be found in mixed woodlands, parks, fields and gardens, although according to literature it is principally associated with coniferous woodlands.   It has been recorded in association with both broadleaf and coniferous trees, and with Poaceae.  It was last recorded in October 2016.
In Europe the species is reported as being fairly common in coniferous woodlands in the Czech Republic and in Spain.   It occurs in similar habitats in Bulgaria, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, and throughout Scandinavia.   In Germany, however, it is described as uncommon.

 

Cystoderma jasonis   (Cooke & Massee) Harmaja
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 980
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 98 unique geo-referenced sites (mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is chiefly found in Scotland, as far north as the Outer Hebrides, at altitudes exceeding 250m.     However records suggest that it has also become established in woodlands in Hampshire and Gloucestershire in the south of England, where it occurs at altitudes between 100m and 150m.  It is encountered occasionally in upland parts of Wales.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is found predominantly in coniferous woodlands in mycorrhizal association with Pinus sylvestris and, less frequently, with other conifers.   Occasionally it has been recorded with broadleaf trees.   It was last recorded in October 2016.
In Europe it is described as rare though geographically widespread.   It has been reported from coniferous forests in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain.  It is listed as rare though not threatened in The Netherlands.


 

Cystoderma simulatum  P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, close to being critically endangered.
In Britain this is a very infrequently recorded species that is probably genuinely rare.   It has been found at a few scattered sites in the more southerly counties of England and Wales, extending no further north than south Warwickshire.   Lignicolous, it is generally associated with rotten wood in mixed woodlands, showing no particular preferences for tree species.   It was last recorded in January 2016.
In Europe it is described as rare.   In The Netherlands it is described as being very rare, found in less than ten locations.   It is also listed as rare or absent throughout most of Scandinavia.    It is reported occasionally from France, Italy, and the Asturias region of Spain.   It is Red Data listed in Russia.

 

Echinoderma calcicola   (Knudsen) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, close to being critically endangered.
With a single exception in East Lothian, Scotland, the species has been found exclusively in mixed and broadleaf woodlands in the south of England, on soil at lowland altitudes.   Terrestrial, on soil, the species appears, as its name suggests, to prefer calcareous, humus-rich soils.  There is no indication of mycorrhizal association with particular trees since it has been found with various coniferous and broadleaf species.   The sparse records stem from the late 1960s.  It was last recorded in October 2016.  It may also be confused with Echinoderma asperum.   Principal threats would appear to be habitat loss.  
In Europe the species is known from parks and gardens in Germany, though it is uncommon.   It is considered comparatively rare in France, Hungary and Italy, again largely restricted again to parks and gardens with rich soils.


 

Echinoderma carinii   (Bres.) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, close to being critically endangered, but possibly also data deficient through confusion with similar-looking species.
Records of the species stem entirely from the midlands and south of England.   There are no extant records from Scotland or Wales.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in association chiefly with coniferous trees, in woodlands, parks and gardens, generally at altitudes of less than 100m., and it may be considered thermophilic.   British records stem only from around the year 2000.  It was last recorded in October 2015.  The species may be confused with the fairly common Echinoderma asperum.
In Europe the species is reported as being uncommon in France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain (Catalonia).   It is Red Listed in Denmark though described as being data deficient.

 

Echinoderma echinaceum   (J.E. Lange) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 850
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 85 unique geo-referenced sites (850 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
Records of the species stem mainly from the south of England, with its strongholds currently indicated to be Gloucestershire, Kent, Surrey, and Wiltshire.   There are occasional records from the English midlands and from south Wales.  It was last recorded in October 2015.  It has not been recorded in Scotland.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in mixed woodlands, chiefly with Corylus spp. and Fagus spp. and shows a preference for calcareous soils.  It is very occasionally recorded in association with conifers.   It is a species of lowlands that is not generally found at altitudes greater than 100m.,  and it is probably thermophilic.
In Europe the species is described from Denmark, France, Germany, Poland, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.   It is listed as being very rare in Hungary.


 

Echinoderma hystrix   (F.H. Møller & J.E. Lange) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 330
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 33 unique geo-referenced sites (330 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
With an isolated exception in Denbighshire, Wales, records stem wholly from the midlands and south of England.   The species has not been recorded in Scotland.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is found in mixed woodlands, in association with various tree species, most commonly Fagus spp.   It has not been recorded at altitudes exceeding 200m.   The number of records has remained fairly consistent since the early 1980s.   It was last recorded in October 2015.
In Europe the species is reported to occur uncommonly in France, Italy, Russia, Slovenia.   In Denmark it is Red Listed as endangered, known only from a few sites, and reported as being very rare.  It is also described as very rare in Germany and Spain (Catalonia).

 

Echinoderma jacobi   (Vellinga & Knudsen) Gminder
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 280
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 28 unique geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is largely confined to sites in the south of England, though occasional records extend as far as Durham.   There is an isolated record from Anglesey in Wales.   It is essentially a lowland species rarely found at altitudes in excess of 100m., terrestrial, on soil, and it occurs in mixed woodlands, in association, almost exclusively, with broadleaf trees.   Records have declined since 2010.   It was last recorded in October 2013.
In Europe the species appears to have been little reported.   It is described as being rarely encountered at highly fragmented locations in France, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, and Sweden.   It occurs at three known sites in Norway, and at a single location in Slovenia.   It is not, however, classed as endangered. 


 

Echinoderma perplexum   (Knudsen) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 570
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 57 unique geo-referenced sites (570 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
With few exceptions the species is restricted to lowland regions in the southernmost counties of England.  A majority of records come from Surrey and Somerset.  It has not been encountered further north than West Lancashire.   It occurs very infrequently in Wales, and has not thus far been identified in Scotland.  It was last recorded in October 2016.  Its ecology is poorly understood.   It appears to be thermophilic, terrestrial, on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, at altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It is found mainly in association with Fagus spp. and occasionally with coniferous trees.   It is likely that some collections are confused with species of similar appearance.
In Europe, the species is found in both coniferous and broadleaf forests, generally on soils rich in humus.   It is described as probably rare in France.   In Sweden it is very rare, known from only five locations.   In Denmark and Norway it is Red Listed as vulnerable.   It is also known from Austria. Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, The Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland, but it is described as having large gaps in its European distribution.

 

Echinoderma pseudoasperulum   (Knudsen) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
A restricted population ocurring almost exclusively in the south and west of England, but extending as far north as West Lancashire, at altitudes below 150m.  It has not been recorded in Wales or Scotland.   The species is found in mixed woodlands, terrestrial, on soil, in association chiefly with species of broadleaf trees.   Occasionally it is recorded with conifers.   It has not, however, been recorded since October 2008, which is of concern, although it may also at times have been wrongly identified.
In Europe it is reported to occur in very rarely in France, Germany and Spain.   It is Red Listed as being vulnerable in Denmark.   In general the species appears to be under-reported throughout the continent.


Gymnopilus bellulus   (Peck) Murrill
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
The strongholds for the species are Somerset and Wiltshire in the south of England.   There is a single record from Wales and two from lowland areas in Scotland.  First British records stem from 1968.  It was last recorded in October 2014.  It is a saprotrophic lignicolous species, favouring dead wood of conifers, rarely found at altitudes above 100m.   In respect of sporophore size it is one of the smaller members of the genus.
In Europe the species has been recorded very rarely in the Czech Republic where it is Red Data listed as vulnerable, the Massif Central of France, Germany, and Italy.   It is found at isolated locations in Scandinavia.   It is believed to occur in Finland but no data is currently availalble.

 

Gymnopilus decipiens   (Sacc.) P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.
The smallest and rarest of the Gymnopilus species, lignicolous, it is found mainly on burnt wood of coniferous forest fire sites.   It has been identified in a doubtful Yorkshire record with wood of Fraxinus spp.    It has been recorded at only two further sites since 1998, one site in Surrey, and one further site in Yorkshire where it was last recorded in November 2015.
In Europe the species occurs very rarely in a few isolated locations in The Netherlands where it is Red Listed as sensitive.   In the Czech Republic it is Red Listed as rare but data deficient.   In France and Germany it is listed as very rare, known only from a few sites.   It has been identified at two locations in southern Norway.


 

Gymnopilus dilepis   (Berk. & Broome) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 25 unique geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered (the numbers of known sites are sufficiently limited to border on vulnerable and we have erred on the side of caution).
A majority of records for this species stem from Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   It has been recorded infrequently as far west as Cornwall, and a far north as Nottinghamshire.   It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   The earliest UK record stems from 1995 at Bisley, Surrey.   It was last recorded in October 2015.   It is generally found at lowland altitudes of less than 100m., lignicolous, growing on woodchip and less commonly on sawdust or composted material.   It has been recorded, however, associated with conifer wood although its preferred substrates appear to be hardwoods.   It is clearly a species of warmer areas with distribution limited to warmer parts of Britain.
The species is native to southern Australia and is a comparatively recent introduction to Europe.   It is warmer areas and appears limited to hardwood forests in central and southern Europe, where it has been little reported.

 

Gymnopilus flavus   (Bres.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered, though possibly also under-recorded.

The species is associated with herbaceous plants, mainly grasses, on which it is parasitic.   Records have declined accountably during the last 30 years.   In the 1950s there were a number of records taken on fixed dune grasslands in the West of England.  A few scattered records are noted from the 1970s and 1980s.    There is only a single record showing since 2000, at Wisley Common in Surrey in October 2015, hence the present asessment of critically endangered.
In Europe the species is generally rare.   It is known from limited sites in The Netherlands where it is Red Listed as vulnerable.   It is Red Listed as endangered in Poland.   It occurs sporadically in Denmark where it is Red Listed as being data deficient.   It occurs at a single site in Germany.   It has also been recorded, rarely, in the Czech Republic, France, Norway and Sweden.


Gymnopilus fulgens   (J. Favre & Maire) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 25 unique geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered (the numbers of known sites are sufficiently limited to border on vulnerable and we have erred on the side of caution).
First named in 1951, British records have been widely scattered from the south coast of England, ranging as far north as the Shetland Islands.   The species is largely restricted to moorlands, coastal heaths, and fixed dune grasslands, where it is generally found to be associated with species of heather.   It occurs at altitudes ranging from sea level to 300m.   Records, however, appear to have reduced dramatically since 2000.  It was last recorded, in Cornwall, in November 2014. 
In Europe, the species is Red Listed as vulnerable in The Netherlands though fairly widely distributed.  In contrast it is Red Listed as critically endangered and possibly extinct in the Czech Republic.  It is also Red Listed in Denmark though data deficient.   The extent of occurrence in France is uncertain though it is certainly known to exits in two widely separated areas, one in the northwest, the other on the Spanish border.   It is reported from Belgium, Germany and Spain.   It is presumed to exist in Finland and parts of Scandinavia.

 

Gymnopilus neerlandicus   (Huijsman) Contu
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.

This extremely rare species, formerly known as Hebelomina neerlandica, has been recorded at only three locations in Surrey and Hampshire, England, since 1984.   It has not been recorded since November 2007.   It is found on lowland heaths, lignicolous, in litter, and in association chiefly with Pinus spp., but also in a single questionable Hampshire record, with Salix spp.
In Europe it is also extremely rare and apparently more or less restricted to The Netherlands where it is Red Listed as endangered, and known from only two locations.


Gymnopilus odini   (Fr.) Kühner & Romagn.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.
The species was first recorded in Surrey, England, in 1977, and was last recorded in Hertfordshire, in July 2010.   It favours acidic, often boggy soils at altitudes up to 300m.  Lignicolous, it is generally associated with burnt wood on fire sites, chiefly that of Picea spp. and Pinus spp.   Other records come exclusively from the south of England, in Gloucestershire, Hertfordshire, and Kent.  The species is very rare, but may also be overlooked, and the threats are unclear.
In Europe this species is also generally rare.   It is Red Listed as fairly rare and threatened in The Netherlands.   It has been found at five locations in Sweden.  It is also known to occur very rarely in the Czech Republic.   In Denmark it is Red Listed but considered to be data deficient, and it has been reported in France.  In Germany it is known from a single location.   Records also come from Latvia, Norway, where it is also Red Listed as near threatened, and Spain.

 

Gymnopilus picreus   (Pers.) P. Karst.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, bordering on critically so.

This is another diminutive and very rarely recorded Gymnopilus species, lignicolous, associated with rotted conifer wood, favouring Pinus spp. and Picea spp. in woodlands and heaths at altitudes not exceeding 150m.  First recorded in Kent in 1960, it has since been identified at several sites in west Norfolk, but also with single records from Cornwall, Hampshire, Surrey, and midwest Yorkshire.   It has not, however, been recorded since October 2001 and may be extinct.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
In Europe the species is generally infrequent though it is described as abundant in the Czech Republic.   It is known in Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, and Russia.   It is Red Listed as endangered in Poland.  It is also Red Listed as sensitive in The Netherlands where there are only four known locations in the south of the country.   In Germany it is afforded conservation priorities.


Gymnopilus stabilis   (Weinm.) Kühner & Romagn.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
First named in 1985, the species is lignicolous and grows chiefly on the dead wood of conifers and occasionally on other shrubs.  It is found in coniferous and mixed woodlands and parklands at altitudes of up to 200m.  It has been recorded as very restricted locations in the southern and midland counties of England, and at single locations in Wales.   It has previously been recorded at Muir of Dinnet in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, in 1962, therefore outside the timescale of this assessment.   It has not, however, been recorded since 2005.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
In Europe the species is fairly widely distributed but is generally rare or under-reported.   In The Netherlands it is Red Listed as critically endangered.  It is described as rare in Germany.  It is known in France.

 

Hohenbuehelia atrocaerulea   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1000
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 100 unique geo-referenced sites (1000 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened, bordering on vulnerable.
The greatest concentration of records for this species stems from Kent, Surrey, and other parts of the southeast of England.   Records, however, extend as far west as Cornwall, and north to Yorkshire.   The species has been recorded very rarely in southern Scotland and Wales.  It was last recorded in November 2015.   It generally occurs at altitudes below 100m., lignicolous, on rotted wood, in mixed woodlands and parklands.   It is associated with a range of broadleaf trees and shrubs.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
In Europe distribution of this species is poorly known.   It is recorded from France in the Massif Central, and from Germany, Poland and Spain, though it is invariably described as rare or very rare.


 

Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium   (Maire) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain, the distribution of this species is almost entirely restricted to the south eastern counties of Hampshire, Surrey, and Sussex, with very isolated occurrence as far north as Shropshire.   It is not known from Scotland or Wales.   It was last recorded in Somerset in September 2016.   It is found at low altitudes rarely exceeding 100m. and appears to be warmer areas.   Lignicolous, it occurs on fallen wood, chiefly of Fagus sylvatica, and very occasionally on the wood of other broadleaf trees.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
  In Europe the species is reported as occuring very rarely in Denmark, the Massif Central of France, Germany, Greece, Italy, and Sweden.   it is Red Listed in the Czech Republic as endangered, and as sensitive in The Netherlands, with currently seven known locations.

 

Hohenbuehelia culmicola   Bon
Previous assessment:  VU B (2006)
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
The very sparse records of this species in Britain are limited to coastal locations, on sand dunes, in association with Ammophila arenaria.    The main concentration of records comes from Kent.   It has also been recorded at two locations on the coast of Wales, and as far north as East Lothian in Scotland.   Records stem only from 1987, and it was last recorded in 2012 in Pembrokeshire.   Main threats include inadequate fixed dune grassland management, and increasing coastal erosion due to rising sea levels.
In Europe the species is Red Listed as endangered in The Netherlands, where it occurs in a few coastal locations.   It has been recorded at coastal locations in Denmark, where it is Red Listed as being data deficient, and in France   It is thought to occur in southern Sweden, but without supporting records.


Hohenbuehelia cyphelliformis  (Berk.) O.K. Mill.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 790
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 79 unique geo-referenced sites (790 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
in Britain the species is recorded mainly in the southern and midland counties of England.   A large proportion of the records stem from Cornwall.   Its range extends no further north than south Lancashire.   There are very isolated records from Wales and Scotland.   It was last recorded in Hampshire in August 2016.   It is a species of lowlands, found at altitudes no higher than 250m. and generally at less than 50m.   It appears to be warmer areas.   It is found growing saprophytically on dead material of  a range of shrubs and herbaceous plants in a wide diversity of habitats including woodlands, farmland, and scrub.
In Europe the species is reported very rarely from Austria, France, Germany,  Poland and Russia.    It is Red Listed as critically endangered in the Czech Republic.   It is listed as rare, but of least concern in Denmark.    It is Red Listed in The Netherlands under the category of not threatened.

 

Hohenbuehelia fluxilis    (Fr.) P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain occurrence of the species is restricted by and large to the English counties where it is widely, though very infrequently distributed from the south coast to Durham.    There are isolated records from Wales and Scotland.    It is a species of lowlands rarely found at altitudes in excess of 100m.   It is encountered in mixed woodlands, parklands, and cemeteries, lignicolous, in association with the rotted wood of various broadleaf trees and shrubs.   It is most often found on dead wood of Sorbus aucuparia.   Records stem mainly from the 1970s.   It was last recorded in West Lancashire in October 2016.
In Europe the species is Red Listed as endangered in the Czech Republic, and rare in France, Germany and Poland.   There are scattered reports from Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, where it is described, however,  as being of least concern.   It has been recorded as far north as southwest Greenland.


 

Hohenbuehelia mastrucata   (Fr.) Singer
Previous assessment:  EN B (2006)
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 130
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 13 unique geo-referenced sites (130 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain, records stem almost wholly from the southeast of England, the greatest concentration coming from Windsor Great Park in Berkshire.   There are isolated single records from Pickering in northeast Yorkshire, and from Mid Lothian in Scotland.   It is a species of warmer areas of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes in excess of 100m. encountered in parklands and mixed woodlands.    It is lignicolous, almost wholly restricted to the dead wood of Fagus sylvatica, though it has been recorded occasionally on wood of Betula, Corylus, and Quercus spp.    Records stem chiefly from the 1970s., and it was last recorded in Somerset in 2013.
In Europe the species is reported rarely from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, the Spanish Sierra Nevada.   It is not, however, considered to be threatened in Europe.

 

Hohenbuehelia petaloides   (Bull.) Schulzer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 770
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 77 unique geo-referenced sites (770 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain records derive mainly from the south of England with the single greatest concentration from Norbury Park in Surrey.   It has been recorded infrequently as far west as Cornwall and northwards to Yorkshire.   There are very isolated records from lowland areas of Wales and Scotland.   It appears to be a species of warmer areas of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 100m.   Terrestrial, it occurs on soil, generally in mycorrhizal association with Fagus spp., less commonly with other broadleaf tree species, and very rarely with conifers.   Records stem from the 1960s.   Very occasional records, possibly doubtful, are noted from earlier decades.   It was last recorded in Surrey, in August 2014.
In Europe it is known from scattered locations in the Czech Republic, Italy, Sardinia, Spain (Navarra region) where it is collected as an edible species.   It is described as rare in Germany and is Red Listed as vulnerable in Bulgaria and Poland.


Hohenbuehelia reniformis   (G. Mey.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
With the solitary rexception of a record from a domestic garden in Edinburgh, Scotland, all extant records for this species come from the southern and midland counties of England.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It is found at low altitudes, hardly exceeding 150m., lignicolous, in woodlands on the rotted wood of a range of broadleaf trees including Betula, Corylus, Fagus, Populus, Quercus, and Ulmus spp.   Most British records stem from the 1980s.   It has not, however, been recorded since 2004 and there must be concerns about its continuing existence.   It may be adversely affected by rising temperatures and possibly over-enthusiastic clearance of fallen timber.
In Europe the occurrence of the species appears to be patchy.   It is Red Listed as endangered in Poland.   It described as very rare in Germany, and uncommon in Norway.   It has also been recorded in Belgium and France.   In Sweden, however,  it appears to be widely distributed and is listed as being of least concern.

 

Hohenbuehelia tremula   (Schaeff.) Thorn & G.L. Barron
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 120
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 12 unique geo-referenced sites (120 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain records come mainly from the southern and midland counties of England extending no further north than south Lancashire.    It has been reported from Carmarthenshire in Wales.   It has not been reported from Scotland.     Lignicolous, it occurs on rotted wood, sawdust and other woody debris in mainly broadleaf woodlands and parklands, at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   Records stem mainly from the 1960s.   The species has not, however, been recorded since 2010, when a single collection was identified in Dorset.   Its continued existence therefore gives some cause for concern.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
In Europe the species is very sparsely recorded.   it is known from France, Slovenia, and Sweden.   It is Red Listed in Norway as near threatened, and as Data Deficient in Denmark.


Hohenbuehelia unguicularis   (Fr.) O.K. Mill.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small and scattered population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
The very sparse records are widely scattered from Anglesey, to west Sutherland and southwest Yorkshire.     Occurrence has been mostly at lowland altitudes of about 50m.    The Yorkshire record was taken at 200m.   Lignicolous, the species has been found on the rotted wood of several trees including Fraxinus, Pinus, Quercus and Sorbus spp.   In Britain this species has not been recorded since 2004 and may, in fact, be extinct.   Principal threats include changes in land management and habitat loss.
In Europe it is Red Listed as vulnerable in Denmark.   It is also listed as occurring rarely in Germany, southern Norway, Poland, and Russia.  It is though probably to occur in Finalnd but with no hard information available.   Otherwise the species seems poorly reported.

 

Lepiota brunneoincarnata   Chodat & C. Martín
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 610
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 61 unique geo-referenced sites (610 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species has been encountered on soil in a range of ecosystems including mixed woodlands, cemeteries, roadside verges, parks and gardens.   Terrestrial, it generally favours light sandy soils.   It is essentially confined to English lowlands, and is rarely found at altitudes exceeding 100m.   The greatest concentration of records comes from the south eastern counties.   Very occasionally it is encountered as far north as Yorkshire.   It is also occasionally recorded in Wales.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   It was last recorded in North Hampshire in October 2016.   The species may readily be confused with other similar-looking small Lepiotas.   It is lethally toxic in humans and domestic animals.
In Europe the species is widely distributed, though described as infrequent or rare in many areas.   It is reported from Bulgaria, France, The Netherlands, Hungary, Italy, and Spain.


 

Lepiota brunneolilacea   Bon & Boiffard
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.
This comparatively large Lepiota species would appear to be on the limit of its northerly range in Britain, and has only been recorded on sandy soil in a few places confined to the English southern counties.   Some records previously assigned (sensu Reid 1985) to Lepiota helveola are now re-assigned to this taxon.   It is warmer areas, generally considered to favour coastal regions and fixed dune grasslands, although only one British record to date has been obtained from a coastal ecosystem.   It was last recorded in Berkshire in August 2009.   Terrestrial, saprotrophic on buried organic matter.  Potential threats in coastal areas include leisure activities, inadequate sand dune maintenance, and rising sea levels.   It is lethally toxic in both humans and domestic animals.    We are reluctant to class it as data deficient for the time being.  
In Europe it is known from very few localities.   In Italy it is recorded from less than ten coastal locations, from two in The Netherlands, and from a single location in Germany.    It is known from Slovenia, and from scattered coastal locations in France, though is a little more frequent in the south.  It has been proposed for Global Red List assessment.  

 

Lepiota cingulum   Kelderman
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, near critically so.
There are very few extant records of the species, the earliest being from the early 1990s and all are from lowlands in the southern half of England, no further north than Warwickshire.   It was last reported in Kent in November 2014.  Terrestrial, it has been recorded mostly on light sandy soils but also on clay, in gardens and wooded areas, at altitudes rarely exceeding 50m.   It does not appear to have any particular mycorrhizal associations, but it is generally considered to occur most often in deciduous woodlands.   It is thought to be warmer areas, and on the northernmost limit of its range.
In Europe the species has been recorded in Denmark, where it is Red Listed as critically endangered.   It is reported very rarely from other parts of Scandinavia, and from Finland.  It is Red Listed as endangered in Hungary.   It is known from about ten locations in The Netherlands, and occurs infrequently in France.

 

 

Lepiota clypeolaria   (Bull.) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: NT
Mature individuals: 1140
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 114 unique geo-referenced sites (1140 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened.
A small to medium sized species with a distinctive shield-shaped cap that is mainly confined in its distribution to the southern half of England, terrestrial, occuring on humus-rich damp soils in mixed woodlands, gardens, heaths, and areas of coastal scrub.   It has been reported occasionally from Anglesey, and other parts of Wales.   It has been reported very occasionally from as far north as Perthshire in Scotland.   It was last reported in October 2015 on the Isle of Wight.  The species is toxic in humans and domestic animals, though probably not dangerously so.   It may be confused with L. magnispora.
In parts of Europe it appears to be reasonably frequent.  It is described as fairly abundant in Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary and elsewhere.

 

Lepiota cortinarius   J.E. Lange
Previous assessment:  rare (1992)
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 22 unique geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
Most of the extant records of this species have been obtained from Surrey and Kent in the southeast of England.   It has been found infrequently extending into the Midlands, and an isolated Scottish record was obtained in 2009 from a garden in Peebles.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   By and large British records of the species only extend from the 1990s.   It was last reported in Nottinghamshire in October 2012.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is generally found in association with coniferous trees, in mixed woodlands, plantations, wooded heaths, parks and gardens, at altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   It is possibly toxic.
In Europe the species is described generally as being rare, or is perhaps under-reported.


 

Lepiota echinella   Quél. & G.E. Bernard
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 910
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 91 unique geo-referenced sites (910 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is largely restricted to the southren counties of England, notably Somerset and south Devon.   There are isolated records from as far north as Northumberland.   It is also recorded very infrequently in Wales.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.  It was last reported in North Hampshire in October 2016.    It is mainly restricted to altitudes below 100m. and may be thermophilic.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in mixed woodlands, gardens, and areas of scrub.   There appear to be no particular mycorrhizal associations, and it occurs with both broadleaf and coniferous trees.   It is lethally toxic to humans and domestic animals.
In Europe the species is known from Germany and Poland, growing in mixed woodlands.   It is reported from several locations in southern Sweden, where it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   It also occurs in France.   However, it seems generally to be under-reported.

 

Cystolepiota eriophora   (Peck) Knudsen
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 240
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 24 unique geo-referenced sites (240 mature individuals).   A small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered though possibly extinct in Britain.
The limited number of records have been gathered largely from Devon and Somerset in the southwest of England, although infrequent collections have been made as far north as Yorkshire.   The species has not, however, been recorded in Britain since 1999, and it may be in serious decline, possibly extinct, for reasons that are not apparent.   Terrestrial, on soil, t has been found growing in proximity to various broadleaf and coniferous trees, but there are no obvious indications of mycorrhizal associations.
In Europe the species has been very sparsely reported, and where it has been found, is described as rare or very rare.


 

Lepiota forquignonii   Quél.
Previous assessment:  rare (1992)
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  160
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
Earliest records of the species stem from 1970 and it has been identified in Hampshire as recently as autumn 2016.   Apart from a rare collection made on fixed dune grasslands in Anglesey, Wales, almost all the limited number of records come from the southernmost counties of England.   It has not been reported from Scotland.   It is terrestrial, on soil, occuring in broadleaf woodlands, parks and golfcourses, most often in association with Fagus spp. at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   The species shows no indication of being in decline, but is very rarely recorded.
In Europe the species is reported as occuring rarely in France and Germany, but elsewhere it seems to have attracted little interest.

 

Lepiota fuscovinacea  F.H. Møller & J.E. Lange
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 600
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 60 unique geo-referenced sites (600 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species can be found in mixed woodlands but often favours parks and ornamental gardens.   It is terrestrial, on soil, in mycorrhizal association with mainly broadleaf trees both native and exotic, and especially with Fagus and Corylus spp.   It is very occasionally recorded with conifers.   It is generally not encountered at altitudes above 200m.   Records stem principally from the south of England and the greatest concentrations are found in Gloucestershire, Surrey and Wiltshire.  It has not been recorded further north than Yorkshire.   It was last recorded in Hampshire in November 2014.   In appearance this is a fairly distinctive species, but it may also be confused with L. lilacea and L. helveola.   It is of questionable toxicity.
In Europe the species is reported rarely from Germany, Italy and Spain.   It is found in a few locations in Skane in southern Sweden where it is Red Listed as endangered.  In Denmark it is Red Listed as vulnerable.   In The Netherlands it is widespread, but described as rare.   It is also reported, rarely, from most parts of central Europe.


 

Lepiota grangei   (Eyre) Kühner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 700
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 70 unique geo-referenced sites (700 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is recorded predominantly in the south of England with limited records extending as far north as Westmorland.  The greatest concentrations of records come from Hampshire and Surrey.   It has been recorded very infrequently in Wales, and has not been found in Scotland.   It was last recorded in North Hampshire in October 2016.   It is mainly confined to broadeaf woodlands, terrestrial, on neutral soils, at altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   It seems to be associated, as a saprophyte, with a range of both broadleaf and coniferous trees.   It may also be overlooked by recorders.
In Europe the species is regarded as rare or very rare though not necessarily threatened in France, Germany, the Czech Republic, The Netherlands, and Hungary.   It is found at a few locations in the south of Sweden, where it is considered to be either very rare or possibly overlooked.   The rarity is echoed in other parts of Scandinavia and the Baltic states.   It is presumed to occur in Finland where its Red Data status in vulnerable, though precise information is absent.   In southern Europe the species is reported from Spain (Catalonia) and Italy.

 

Lepiota griseovirens   Maire
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is recorded at a restricted number of locations in southern and central England, as far north as Westmorland.   There are also extant records from a single coastal site in Anglesey.  It is otherwise not recorded in Wales or Scotland.   It was last recorded in Huntingdonshire in October 2013.   It is found mainly in broadleaf woodlands, but also in wetlands and occasionally in fixed dune grasslands at lowland altitudes.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs most commonly in mycorrhizal association with broadleaf trees including Corylus, Fagus and Quercus spp.   It is recorded very occasionally with conifers.  It can also be mistaken for L. grangei.
In Europe the species is reported only rarely in France, Greece, The Netherlands, Italy and Spain.   It is red listed as endangered in Poland, and as being vulnerable in Denmark.


 

Lepiota helveola   Bres.
Previous assessment:  rare (1992)
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:   130
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 13 unique geo-referenced sites (130 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
This is a rarely reported species of broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens in lowland regions of southern England, chiefly in Wiltshire.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is found in mycorrhizal association with a number of broadleaf trees including most notably Acer and Corylus spp.   It has not been reported from Scotland or Wales.   Records since 2000 have been very sparse, and it would appear to be either in decline or under recorded.  It was last reported in Somerset in September 2008.   It may also be confused with L. fuscovinacea.    Synthesising amatoxins, the species is intensely toxic, both in humans requiring liver transplantation, and in domestic animals.
In Europe it has been recorded as being widespread but not common in Romania, Spain and other parts of the continent.

 

Lepiota hymenoderma   D.A. Reid
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  100
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
The species has been recorded in disparate locations from the north of England, to Devon, and to Radnorshire in Wales.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.    It was last recorded in Yorkshire in September 2016.  It is found on soil at altitudes generally below 100m., in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens.   It appears to be associated with a range of broadleaf and, occasionally, coniferous trees though is probably only saprophytic rather than mycorrhizal.
Distribution in Europe is poorly defined, and the species would appear to be genuinely rare.   It is reported in a few scattered locations in The Netherlands, where it was red listed as rare in 2008.   It has been reported from France, and also from Greece, associated with species of juniper.


 

Lepiota ignivolvata   Bousset & Joss.
Previous assessment:  rare (1992)
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 650
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 65 unique geo-referenced sites (650 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The geographical range of this species in Britain is limited predominantly to the southernmost counties of Devon, Gloucestershire, Somerset, and Wiltshire.   It is very occasionally recorded in Wales and Scotland.   It was last recorded in the Forest of Dean in October 2016.  Although it has been found at altitudes of up to 350m., it is essentially a species of lowlands, terrestrial, on soil, chiefly in broadleaf woodlands, favouring mycorrhizal association with Fagus spp., less commonly Quercus spp.   Very occasionally it is recorded with conifers.  The species is recognisable by the reddish tinge to the stipe base, which readily distinguishes it from L. clypeolaria.   It also has a characteristic, unpleasant rubbery smell.   It is toxic to both humans and domestic animals.  
In Europe the species appears to be of variable distribution.   It is reported from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, and Poland.  In most of these areas records appear to be scattered.    It is described as fairly common in Spain.   Very isolated records have been reported from the extreme south of Sweden.

 

Lepiota lilacea   Bres.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  240
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 24 unique geo-referenced sites (240 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
All British records, to date, for this species have been obtained in the southern half on England, extending from the Isle of Wight to Nottinghamshire.   Records appear to have declined markedly since 2000.   It was last recorded in North Wiltshire in November 2011.   It is found at low altitudes on soil in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, in association with a range of broadleaf trees.   It is probably purely a saprotroph.    The species may readily be confused with Lepiota cristata and is possibly under-reported.   It is lethally toxic in both humans and domestic animals.
In Europe the species is reported occurring either infrequently or rarely, in grassy areas of parks and gardens in France, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, and southern Sweden.


 

Lepiota obscura   (Locq. ex Bon) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, and possibly critically so.
The sparse records of this species are largely restricted to the southwest of England, chiefly in Wiltshire and Somerset, with a scattering of collections extending southeast, and north as far as Lancashire.   It has not, however, been recorded since 2006, when it was found in Kent, and may be extinct.   It occurs on soil at altitudes of less than 200m. in mixed woodlands and verges, mainly in association with broadleaf trees.   There has been some taxonomic confusion, in as much as some collections were previously recorded as L. pseudofelina sensu NCL (1960), auct. mult.
In Europe the species is very little recorded, and may be genuinely rare.

 

Lepiota ochraceofulva   P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  390
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
British records are mainly concentrated in the south of England, with isolated collections extending as far north as Durham.   It has also been recorded occasionally in the southern lowlands of Scotland and in Wales.  It was last recorded in North Somerset in October 2015.   The species appears to favour low-lying areas and is rarely found at altitudes greater than 150m.   Mycorrhizal, on soil in mixed woodlands, parks, cemeteries, and ornamental gardens, generally occuring in association with a range of coniferous trees that includes most frequently Abies, Cedrus and Taxus spp.
In Europe the species appears generally to be scarce or under reported.   It has been recorded in mountainous forested regions of Sweden.  In Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands it is Red Listed as rare, sensitive, and vulnerable.


 

Lepiota subalba   Kühner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  750
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 75 unique geo-referenced sites (750 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is recorded not infrequently in woodlands throughout England, though it is more often encountered in the southern counties.   Its range extends into the Scottish lowlands and Wales, but with considerably less frequency.   It was last recorded in Nottinghamshire, in November 2014,   It is probably warmer areas, and is generally found at altitudes of less than 200m.   Mycorrhizal, on soil, it is found chiefly in broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens, usually in association with Quercus and Fagus spp.   Recording appears to have diminished, however, since 2000 and continued monitoring seems essential.
In Europe it is reported from Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, and from very isolated locations in southern Sweden.   It is Red Listed as vulnerable and generally rare in The Netherlands, but is of least concern in Denmark.

 

Lepiota subgracilis   Kühner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  840
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 84 unique geo-referenced sites (840 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is recorded chiefly in the southern counties of England, in lowlands at altitudes below 100m.   It is recorded very infrequently in Wales, and in the lowlands of southern Scotland.   The most recent record is from North Hampshire in September 2015.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in mixed woodlands and parks, mainly with Fagus spp. with which it is probably in mycorrhizal association.  The species might be considered to border on being of least concern were it not for its apparent rarity in Europe.  
In Europe the species has been recorded in the Navarre region of Spain, in warmer areas of France, and the Czech Republic.   It has been found at a few scattered coastal locations in the far south of Sweden.   It is found at two widely disparate locations in The Netherlands, where it is Red Listed as critically endangered.   By and large, in Europe it seems to be either under-reported or genuinely rare.


 

Lepiota tomentella   J.E. Lange
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  510
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 51 unique geo-referenced sites (510 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species is mainly restricted to the southern counties of England, with particular strongholds in Wiltshire and Somerset.   It has been recorded infrequently as far north as Northumberland, and has been found to a very limited extent in Wales.   It has not yet been recorded in Scotland.   It was last recorded in Cheshire in October 2015.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes above 200m.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs chiefly in broadleaf woodlands, and is occasionally encountered in fixed dune grasslands.   It appears to have no particular associations with tree species, and is probably a general saprotroph.   Principal threats include felling of sensitive woodlands and vehicle damage.
In Europe the species is found very rarely.   It occurs at seven locations in southern Sweden.   It is Red Listed as endangered in Denmark and Poland.   In The Netherlands it is also Red Listed, found at a scattered cluster of locations, mainly in the far south, and with a status described as sensitive.  It is known from at least one location in Italy, and it has been recorded recently in Greece.


 

Lepiota xanthophylla   P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  rare (1992)
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  340
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 34 unique geo-referenced sites (340 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
The species has been recorded at scattered locations thoughout England, as far north as west Lancashire.   Its range extends briefly into Wales, but it is not recorded in Scotland.   It is found on soil at altitudes generally less than 150m. and is thought to be a warmer areas introduction from Sri Lanka or southern India.  It occurs infrequently in mixed woodlands, generally in association with broadleaf trees, but may also be encountered in garden greenhouses.   It has been recorded regularly under glass in the Leicester University Botanic Garden.   It was last recorded in a woodland in North Somerset, in October 2015.   It is lethally toxic in both humans and domestic animals, synthesising amatoxins.
In Europe the species is generally considered uncommon, and in the wild may be largely restricted to Mediterranean regions, where it has been reported from as far south as Morocco.   It has been noted in the Lombardia region of Italy, where a separate species, L. elaiophylla Vellinga & Huijser 1997, is distinguished growing in greenhouses.   In Germany it is also reported growing in greenhouses, and flowerpots.   It is Red Listed as critically endangered in Denmark, and identified as being very rare in The Netherlands where there are only four known locations.


 

Lepista caespitosa   (Bres.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  70
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, and probably now critically endangered.
Note: in the Species Fungorum the preferred name for this species is Clitocybe fasciculata  H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm., 1969 as the species epithet "caespitosa" is pre-occupied in Clitocybe.
This is a rare, species of warmer areas that has been recorded at a few, very scattered locations in the south of England.   It has been found chiefly in Norbury Park in Surrey.   There is a single record from a riverside location near Pitlochry in Scotland that predates the period of this assessment, otherwise the species was first recorded in 1983.   It has not, however, been recorded in Britain since 2007.   It is probably on the limits of its northerly range.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in mixed woodlands, in lowlands at altitudes of less than 150m.   Where there is an identifiable association with trees, it is usually with Castanea sativa with which it probably has mycorrhizal association.   Because of a tendency to brown spotting, collections might be confused with Rhodocollybia maculata, though this does not generally aggregate in close groups.
In warmer parts of southern Europe, the species is fairly frequent.   It is described as common in countries bordering the Mediterranean including southern France, Italy, and Spain.   It is found in Slovenia, but elsewhere in the continent it is little reported.

 

Lepista glaucocana  (Bres.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals:  50
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.
The number of British sites where this very rare species is known to occur has halved in the last 100 years.   Since 1982, it has been reported from a few disparate sites in Kent and Surrey.   It was last recorded at Kew Gardens, Surrey, in 2011.   Terrestrial, on soil, it occurs in broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens in association with broadleaf trees including Fraxinus spp. and Carpinus betulus.   It is warmer areas and appears to be on the extreme northerly limit of its geographical range.
In Europe the species is recorded in a number of countries bordering the Mediterranean including France, Italy, Spain.   It is also reported from Bulgaria, Hungary, and Slovenia.

 

Lepista ovispora   (J.E. Lange) Gulden
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
Records of this rare species are chiefly contained in the southern counties of England, though it has been found on one or two occasions in the midlands, and as far north as the Orkney Islands.   Terrestrial, it appears to be restricted to grasslands, heaths, and open woodlands, on grassy soil.   There are no clear mycorrhizal associations.   It occurs at lowland altitudes, generally of less than 100m.    It was last recorded in Leicestershire in 2012.
In Europe the species has been recorded in various parts of Scandinavia including Denmark, where it is Red Listed as data deficient, and in Norway and Sweden.   It occurs in Finland though no official records are available.   Elsewhere in Europe it was recorded in 2010 at a single location in the Czech Republic, and it is found infrequently in France.   In general in Europe it seems to be either genuinely rare or under-reported.

 

Leratiomyces ceres   (Cooke & Massee) Spooner & Bridge
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals:  390
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A small scattered population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable, though if its present rate of expansion continues, it may in future become of least concern.
In Britain, this easily recognisable species is an introduction, believed to have come originally from Australia, and first recorded here, in Somerset, in 1957.   It has spread since that time throughout southern Britain and northwards as far as West Lancashire.    It was recently reported in 2015 from Wigtownshire in Scotland.    It was most recently recorded in Cheshire, in October 2016.  It is a species of warmer areas, restricted to lowlands, rarely occurring at altitudes above 100m.   Lignicolous, it occurs on woodchip in parks and gardens, less frequently in woodlands where suitable woody litter has been left.   There has been an amount of confusion with the name Stropharia aurantiaca, which according to some authorities remains a distinct taxon for reference material deposited prior to 2008.  
In Europe the species has spread generally in parks and gardens though in a number of countries, including France, Italy and Spain not least, it is still reported under the old name Stropharia aurantiaca.   Under the name Leratiomyces ceres it is noted to be widespread in The Netherlands.

 

Leratiomyces percevalii   (Berk. & Broome) Bridge & Spooner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals:  30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient.
In Britain, although there are a few records from the late 19th century, the species has only been recorded reliably since the 1970s at three widely disparate locations, including Liverpool in South Lancashire, Leatherhead in Surrey, and Edinburgh in Scotland.   Lignicolous, it is found on woodchip in lowland areas.   It has not been recorded since 2000.   More data are therefore required before any reliable status can be determined.
In Europe the species has been recorded at scattered locations in Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Russia, Spain and Sweden, and is not generally considered to fall into a threatened category.

 

Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt.) Konrad & Maubl. 
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: NT
Mature individuals:  1190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 119 unique geo-referenced sites (1190 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened.
It may be noted that the FRDBI database (BMS) includes over 200 records for this species.   However, on examination approximately 40% of these records are found to be either replicates, involve insubstantial dates and other erroneous details, or are from Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic.
Distribution in Britain is widespread, but uncommon.   In the period of the present assessment, the first records stem from 1969, and the most recent was taken in Somerset, in October 2016.    Terrestrial, it is found on nutrient-rich soils in mixed woodlands, parks, frequently in overgrown areas and associated with nettles.   It is known to be ectomycorrhizal with Picea spp.   It has also been confused with Phaeolepiota aurea.
In Europe the species is of widespread distribution, but generally considered to be rare.   It is known from Croatia, the Gzech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy, Poland, where it is specifically Red Listed as rare; Romania, Russia, and Slovakia.


 

Resupinatus alboniger   (Pat.) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals:   360
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 36 unique geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.

In Britain virtually the entire concentration of records for the species are contained in the southwestern counties of Cornwall, Dorset, and Somerset, with a few collections extending to Hampshire and Gloucestershire.  Records stem from 1998 though most have been entered since 2012.   It was most recently recorded in Somerset in December 2014.   The species is lignicolous, found on the rotting wood of various broadleaf trees and shrubs, most notably Acer pseudoplatanus.   It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m, in woodlands and farmlands.   It may be that the species remains under-reported.

In Europe the species appears to have attracted very little interest.   It is known to have been recorded in Croatia, France, and Spain.   It has also been reported recently in Greece.

 

Resupinatus kavinii   (Pilát) M.M. Moser
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals:   30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient.
In Britain only three widely separated locations are known for the species, in Surrey, Sussex, and in West Sutherland in Scotland.   The most recent record is from Eastbourne in Sussex, in October 2004.   The species is lignicolous and has been found, very rarely, on rotting wood at lowland altitudes, and is either extremely rare or, as we are proposing, data deficient
In Europe the species has been recorded at a single location in the south of The Netherlands where it is described as being extremely rare.   It occurs infrequently in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, southern Norway, and the Asturia region of Spain.   It has been identified recently for the first time in Poland.


 

Resupinatus poriaeformis   (Pers.) Thorn et al.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:   VU D1
Mature individuals:   400
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 40 unique geo-referenced sites (400 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In England the species has been recorded infrequently across a wide range of locations, mainly in the southeastern counties, but extending occasionally as far north as Lancashire.     In Scotland it has been recorded very rarely as far north as Sutherland.   There are also occasional records from Wales.  It was most recently recorded in Northumberland in April 2016.    It is a species of lowlands, and other than two or three rare exceptions, it is not found at altitudes in excess of 150m.   It is lignicolous, occuring on the rotting wood of a range of broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus sylvatica, less frequently Alnus, Corylus and Quercus spp.
In Europe the species is known from Denmark, the Czech Republic,  Greece.   In Norway it is listed as data deficient.   In Denmark it is Red Listed of least concern.

 

Rugosomyces chrysenteron  (Bull.) Bon
Previous assessment:  rare (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain, the sparse locations where the species has been recorded are widely scattered from Devon on the south coast of England to Anglesey in Wales.   It is not reported from Scotland.   It has been found at altitudes from sea level to 200m., terrestrial, on soil in mixed woodlands and scrub with broadleaf and coniferous trees of sufficient variety that it appears to have no particular mycorrhizal associations.   The first record stems from 1972, and it was most recently recorded in Anglesey in 2012.   This attractive species appears to be teetering on the edge of extinction across much of Europe though reasons for its decline are unclear.
In Europe the species is now included in Red List of the Czech Republic as being critically endangered though also data deficient.   It is Red Listed in Denmark where a small area of occupancy with continuing decline is indicated, and it is also Red Listed in Germany and Hungary.   It is recorded very rarely in Bulgaria, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, Serbia and Spain.   A number of these countries report the species to be in decline.   It remains to be evaluated in Sweden.

 

Rugosomyces ionides  (Bull.) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 430
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 43 unique geo-referenced sites (430 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain, occurence of the species is largely confined to the southern counties of England, and it is rarely found further north than Norfolk on the east coast.   Most of the records come from Surrey, where it has been recorded regularly in Norbury Park, and in the West Horsley area.   There are isolated records from Anglesey in Wales.   It has not been found in Scotland.   It was most recently recorded in South Hampshire in September 2016.   It occurs in lowland areas, rarely exceeding 150m. in altitude, terrestrial, on soil, in association mainly with broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus sylvatica with which it is mycorrhizal.   These are occasional scattered records with coniferous trees.   The species is generally rare, though easily identified with its distinctive violet-coloured cap.
In Europe, the species is Red Data listed as being vulnerable in Estonia.   It is also known from Bulgaria, Denmark, France where it is encountered rarely, Germany, Italy where it is described as uncommon, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, Spain where protection is recommended, and from Sweden where it is described as extremely rare, known at only ten locations in the far south of the country.

 

Rugosomyces obscurissimus
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 270
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 27 unique geo-referenced sites (270 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In England, records of this species are largely restricted to Surrey, with scattered examples from elsewhere.   It is found very rarely in Wales and Scotland.   It was last recorded in North Hampshire in November 2014.   It occurs generally at low altitudes rarely exceeding 100m., terrestrial, on soil, in woodlands, mainly in association with coniferous trees, favouring Larix spp., but it is also encountered in fixed dune grasslands.   It appears to have fairly limiting requirements in habitat areas that are herb-rich, on both calcareous and siliceous substrates.   These, when taken in account with a small population size, make the species sensitive to any habitat changes.   It is not especially distinctive in appearance, hence its name, and it may be overlooked.
In Europe the species is generally rare.   It is Red Listed as vulnerable in Denmark.   It is known from France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Spain and from a few, isolated areas in the south of Sweden.   It is believed to occur in Finland.

Rugosomyces onychinus   (Fr.) Raithelh.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); CR B (2006)
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient, possibly extinct.
In Britain the species was last recorded in 1961 and 1964, at Loch Rannoch in Perthshire, Scotland, and there is a high probability that it is now extinct in Britain.   It is terrestrial, occuring on soil.  Mycorrhizal associations are unclear.   It appears to be thermophobic, and may therefore have been adversely affected by rise in global temperatures.  Synonymised as Lyophyllum onychinum (Fr.) Kühner & Romagn. ex Contu (2009)
In Europe the species is Red Listed in the Czech Republic as critically endangered or perhaps data deficient, and as near threatened in both Norway and Sweden, where it is showing continuing decline.   It has been recorded occasionally in montane regions of Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain.   It has also been reported from Poland.

 

Rugosomyces persicolor  (Fr.) Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain occurence of the species is largely restricted to southern counties of England.   It has been recorded most frequently in Devon, Hampshire, and Surrey.   However, there are occasional records in Lancashire, and it has been recorded very rarely in Caithness and Perthshire, in Scotland.   It has not, however, been recorded in Britain since 2006, which is cause for concern.   Terrestrial, on soil, it appears to favour grassy habitats in lowland regions, and is hardly ever found at altitudes above 150m.
In Europe this species is Red Listed in the Czech Republic as either critically endangered or perhaps data deficient.   It is also recorded infrequently in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, and Sweden.   It is described as occuring very rarely in parts of Spain.

 

Simocybe haustellaris   (Fr.) Watling
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1060
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 106 unique geo-referenced sites (1060 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened.
In Britain the species is fairly widely distributed in woodlands, though mainly concentrated in the southern and midland counties of England.   There are very limited Scottish records as far north as Caithness, and scattered records from Wales.   It was last recorded in County Durham in November 2016.   Lignicolous, it is found on rotting wood of broadleaf trees.   It just falls into the Near Threatened category.
In Europe the species is widely distributed and there is little conservation interest visible.

 

Squamanita paradoxa   (A.H. Sm. & Singer) Bas
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); NT (2006)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 180
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 18 unique geo-referenced sites (180 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded chiefly in the Welsh border counties of Gwent,  Shropshire and Worcestershire.   Very occasionally it has been found elsewhere, both in the southeast, and north of England.    It is known very rarely from Scotland.   By and large it seems to favour upland areas at altitudes in excess of 250m. extending up to 500m.   It is parasitic on Cystoderma amianthinum.   It occurs generally in grassy soils, on moorlands and in other unimproved grasslands in parks, cemeteries, and golfcourses.   Prior to 1999 the species was known only from single records in West Kent, and on the Island of Mull.   It was last recorded in 2013 in County Durham.   However, recording since the 1980s has been very spasmodic.   There are some suggestions that because it appears nondescript from the top view, the species may also be overlooked.   Its existence may easily be threatened by any form of exploitation of the grassland areas in which it is found.
In Europe the species is known from Italy.  It has been identified at four locations in Sweden, and only once in Denmark.   It has also been recorded in The Netherlands.   It has been proposed as a candidate for global Red Data assessment.

Squamanita pearsonii   Bas
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being data deficient.
Since 2000 this parasitic species, with an appearance resembling an Amanita, has been identified at only two locations in Britain, both at low altitudes, on soil.  It occured most recently with Salix sp. in a disused sand and gravel pit in Nottinghamshire, England, in September 2012, where it was noted to be parasitic on Hebeloma mesophaeum.  It was found to be parasitic on a Cystoderma sp. among mosses in a country park in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.   An earlier record (1950) is known from the Rothiemurchus Estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland in 2004.   The species is possibly under-recorded, or is genuinely extremely rare.   It cannot therefore be effectively categorised for Red Data purposes without further investigation.
In Europe the species has been recorded in The Netherlands, though again prior to the period of this survey.   Aside from this, records are extremely scarce.

 

Stropharia albonitens   (Fr.) Quél.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  140
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
In Britain the locations at which this rare species have been recorded are scattered from Devon in the southwest of England, to west Wales, and Yorkshire.  It has not been recorded in Scotland.   Records stem only from 1985 and the species is generally found in lowlands at altitudes of less than 100m.   It was last recorded on farmland in Herefordshire in November 2015.   Terrestrial, it occurs generally in grassy soil, in open woodlands, meadows, heaths, and parks.   Little particular association with tree species is readily identifiable, though according to literature it is said to favour Alnus spp.
In Europe the species is generally described as rare.   It is Red Listed as critically endangered in the Czech Republic, and as near threatened in Denmark.   It is reported, occasionally, from France, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia and Slovenia.   It is also recorded from widely scattered locations in The Netherlands where it is categorised as fairly rare but not threatened, and in Sweden, where it is considered to be of least concern.


Stropharia halophila   Pacioni
Previous assessment:  VU D2 (2006)
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   A very small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being critically endangered.
In Britain the species is probably on the verge of extinction, known from only four widely scattered sand dune locations in North Devon, Gwynedd, Lancashire, and Norfolk.   It has only been recorded since 1992 and the most recent record, at Morfa Diffryn NNR in Gwynedd, dates from 2014.   It is not known from Scotland.    Terrestrial, on sandy soil, it is mycorrhizal with Ammophila arenaria.   Chief threats are inappropriate dune management, rising sea levels, and human recreational activity.
In Europe this species has been proposed for the Global Red List Assessment as its known fixed sand dune sites are potentially endangered by tourism, inappropriate dune management, and climate change.   It has been recorded from restricted locations in France, The Netherlands, Italy and Sicily, but otherwise seems to be very scarcely reported.

 

Stropharia luteonitens   (Fr.) Quél.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
In Britain, records have come mainly from Sutherland in the north of Scotland.   Occasional records have been obtained from England and Wales.  This coprophilous species is found in a variety of habitats including predominantly moorlands and fixed dune grasslands where it occurs in association with the dung of various animals, chiefly cattle.   It is a species of lowlands, and is not known to occur at altitudes above 200m.   It was first reported in 1950, and the most recent record dates from October 2011, at Morfa Harlech NNR, in Gwynedd.   Synonymised as Protostropharia luteonitens (Fr.) Redhead (2014).
Recently re-classified by some authorities as Protostropharia luteonitens, in Europe the species is recorded in the Massif Central of France, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and Poland.  It is generally described as being rare or fairly rare.   It is Red Listed in Norway and in Sweden as being either data deficient, or not evaluated.   It is also presumed to occur in Finland.


Stropharia melanosperma   (Bull.) Gillet
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals:  70
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered, and verging on critically endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded very occasionally within the period of this survey in a number of English counties including Cheshire, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Leicestershire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and Warwickshire.   It has not been identified in Scotland or Wales.   It was last recorded in 2015 at a National Trust property in Cheshire.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is found in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, generally at altitudes not exceeding 100m.   It appears to live in association with various grasses though its exact requirements are unclear.
In Europe the species is believed to be widespread, but is generally described as rare.   It may, however, also be under-reported.   It is known from Belarus, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, The Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, and Russia.   Its status is uncertain in Sweden.

 

Stropharia rugosoannulata   Farl. ex Murrill
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed as being endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded rarely at scattered locations in England and Wales.   It has not been recorded in Scotland, or further north than Yorkshire in England.   It was last recorded in October 2016, in Northeast Yorkshire.   It appears to be warmer areas, and favours lowland habitats in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, saprophytic on litter including woodchip, rotted hay, and straw.
In Europe we have been able to find little precise information on distribution, though occurrence of the species appears now to be widespread as a result of changes in gardening practice, and the popular use of bark mulch to suppress weed growth.  However, it is also now cultivated from spawn as a popular edible species.


 

Stropharia squamulosa   (Massee) Massee
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment: CR D
Mature individuals:  20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as being critically endangered, possibly now extinct.
In Britain the species has been recorded twice during the period of the assessment, in 1969 in North Somerset, and in 1980 in Staffordshire.  It may therefore be extinct.  Both records were obtained in mixed woodlands, on soil, at altitudes below 200m.   Its precise requirements are unclear.
In Europe the species has been recorded with extreme rarity in Bulgaria, Denmark, France, and Poland.  It may, however, also be under-reported.

 

Tricholoma albobrunneum  (Pers.) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 440
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 44 unique geo-referenced sites (440 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is widely distributed from Sutherland in northern Scotland, to the southern counties of England.   Terrestrial, it is found on poor sandy soils in coniferous plantations and mixed woodlands, at altitudes more or less extending from sea level up to 300m.   It was last recorded in November 2016, in County Durham.   It is ectomycorrhizal with both Pinus spp. and Picea spp., but it is also recorded not infrequently in association with Betula spp.
In Europe the species is infrequently recorded.   It is known to occur with conifers in the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, the Iberian Peninsula, Norway and Russia.   It appears to be fairly well distributed in Sweden, especially in the southern parts of the country.   It is Red Listed, however, as moderately rare and vulnerable in The Netherlands.


 

Tricholoma apium  Jul. Schäff.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992);   EN(B) 2006
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
The limited number of UK records stem principally from the Scottish Highlands, although the species has been recorded in England as far south as Suffolk on the east coast, and the Forest of Dean.   It is mycorrhizal chiefly with Pinus sylvestris, at altitudes rarely exceeding 300m.  Terrestrial, the species shows a preference for acidic, sandy soils.   Threats include decline in quality and extent of its favoured habitat in open pine woods, intensive forestry, deforestation, and eutrophication by heavy nitgrogen depositions.   Records stem from 1975, and the most recent collection has been from Rosedale in northeast Yorkshire in 2016.
In Europe the species occurs chiefly in more northerly latitudes.   Its main areas include eastern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia, where it is generally Red Listed as vulnerable.   It is believed to occur in Estonia, but no statistics are available.   It has wide but fragmented distribution elsewhere in western and central Europe, and is generally regarded as very rare.   It has been recorded as far southwest as Spain, and east to Turkey.   IUCN Red Listing (2015) has identified the species as vulnerable, thought to have declined by approx. 30% in the last 50 years, based on Dahlberg & Mueller (2011) assessment criteria.  

 

Tricholoma arvernense  Bon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
Apart from an isolated collection in Devon in 2010, the limited records of the species are restricted to the Scottish Highlands, where it forms mycorrhizal association with Pinus spp., less frequently other conifers.   Terrestrial, it favours limestone soils at altitudes rarely below 100m.   Records extend only from 1988.  The species has been subject to genome sequencing.
In Europe the species appears to be generally rare, found principally in alpine and sub-alpine coniferous forests, in association with Pinus spp. and Abies spp.   It occurs in Southern and Central Sweden, Denmark where it is Red Listed as vulnerable, and it is presumed to occur in Finland, though no reliable data are available.   It is also known from the Czech Republic.


Tricholoma batschii  Gulden
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain, with very limited exceptions, the species is restricted to the southern part of England, in lowland regions, at altitudes up to 100m.   Terrestrial, it favours limestone soils in coniferous forests.   It forms mycorrhizal association with several species of conifers, most notably Pinus spp.    The limited number of British records extend from the mid-1990s.  The CATE2 databse hold a single record from the Scottish Highlands.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   The species has been subject to genome sequencing.  
In Europe Tricholoma batschii is recorded in southern Scandinavia and southern Finland, but is considered to be rare in any more southerly latitudes.   It is known from the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Russia, and in souther Europe from the Iberian peninsula to Italy and the Balkans.  It is also found in montane regions of Germany.

 

Tricholoma bresadolanum  Clémençon
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   An infrequently recorded population (Criterion D) assessed as data deficient
During the 50 year period of this assessment, the species has been recorded at single locations in Lancashire, Worcestershire, and North Somerset, the most recent being in 2005.   Its British status and possible mycorrhizal associations are therefore uncertain.   Terrestrial, it has been found on soil in mixed woodlands at altitudes up to 300m.   Any association with specific trees remains unclear, and further investigations are clearly required.
In Europe the species is recorded infrequently or rarely in broadleaf forests in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Sardinia, Slovenia, Spain, and southern Sweden.  It is Red Listed in Switzerland.   It was first recorded the Czech Republic in autumn 2010 and has been ecountered there occasionally in subsequent seasons.

 


Tricholoma bufonium  (Pers.) Gillet
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 25 unique geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain this is a rare species of lowlands, most recently recorded in 2014.   It has been encountered chiefly in the English midlands, and with rare exceptions in Scotland and Wales.   Terrestrial, it occurs on soil in broadleaf and mixed woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with various broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus spp. and Quercus spp.  Very occasionally it has been recorded in association with conifers.   It has been found at altitudes ranging from sea level to 250m.
In Europe it is recorded infrequently in mixed and broadleaf forests in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovenia, and Spain.

 

Tricholoma colossus  (Fr.) Quél.
Previous assessment:  EN (1992)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
Apart from an isolated English record collected in 2016, in Dorset, occurrence of the species is restricted to the Scottish Highlands.   It occurs in coniferous forests, terrestrial, on acidic sandy soils, generally at altitudes exceeding 250m. and in mycorrhizal association with Pinus sylvestris.
In Europe T. colossus it is a protected Red List species in Bulgaria, where it is critically endangered, and Slovenia.   It has a scattered occurence in Sweden where it is Red Listed status has been updated since 2010 from near threatened to vulnerable.  It is found in very rarely in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Ukraine.


 

Tricholoma focale  (Fr.) Ricken
Previous assessment:  EN (1992); NT (2006)
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 370
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 37 unique geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain records of the species are almost wholly restricted to the Scottish Highlands.  The CATE2 database shows only two records from England, in Gloucestershire and Wiltshire.   Terrestrial, on soil, the species is found chiefly in mycorrhizal association with Pinus sylvestris, less frequently with other species of conifer including Pseudotsuga menziesii.    It occurs at altitudes from sea level to in excess of 400m.   The species has been subject to genome sequencing.
In Europe, the species is comparatively common in pine forests from the Mediterranean countries, extending northwards into central Europe.   It is fairly widely distributed in Sweden, but it is Red Listed as endangered in Germany and Poland, and is considered critically endangered in The Netherlands, with only three known locations post-1990.

 

Tricholoma gausapatum  (Fr.) Quél.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
The limited number of British records for the species stem chiefly from the southern counties of England.   There is a single record from Invernesshire in Scotland, and a single record from Cardiganshire in Wales.    Terrstrial, on soil, frequently grassy, it occurs in mixed woodlands where it is in mycorrhizal association chiefly with broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus spp.   Less frequently it is found in association with conifers.   It is rarely encountered at altitudes exceeding 200m.  The species may readily be confused with common T. terreum, but is distinguished by the presence of thick black fibrils on the cap surface.    It appears to be thermophilic.   It has not been recorded in Britain since 2011.
In Europe the species is recorded in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Sardinia, Slovenia, and Spain.    It is more commonly recorded in mycorrhizal association with conifers, predominantly Pinus spp. and is generally found in grassy soils.   It is harvested as an edible species.


 

Tricholoma inamoenum  (Fr.) Gillet
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); EX (2006)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain, the very limited number of records are restricted to a few lowland locations in England and Wales.   The species has not been recorded in Scotland.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is mainly found in mycorrhizal association with Pinus spp. and Picea spp. on soil, in mixed woodlands, at altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   It has been recorded only once since 2010, in Derbyshire.   The species has been subject to genome sequencing.
In Europe the species appears generally to be more common in montane areas.   It is recorded in coniferous forests in Italy and Sweden, where it is Red Listed of least concern.   It is also recorded in France, Germany, and Russia.

 

Tricholoma inocybeoides  Corner
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 340
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 34 unique geo-referenced sites (340 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain the species has been recorded infrequently, but is widely dispersed from Sutherland in the north of Scotland, to Devon on the south coast.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It is found in mixed woodlands, on heaths, and in parks and gardens, at lowland altitudes, rarely exceeding 100m., terrestrial, on calcareous soils.   It is generally ectomycorrhizal with Populus spp. and Betula spp.  The species is, however, thought to be not infrequently confused with T. argyraceum, and may therefore be more common than records indicate.
In Europe, the species is regarded as a rare occurrence in broadleaf forests and parklands, in Denmark, France, Germany, and Slovenia.   In Germany only three locations are currently listed.   In the Czech Republic the species is Red Listed as being data deficient.  It is also considered data deficient, as of 2010, in both Finland and Norway, where a few scattered locations are known.   


 

Tricholoma matsutake  (S. Ito & S. Imai) Singer
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 10
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 1 unique geo-referenced sites (10 mature individuals).   An apparently almost non-existent population (Criterion D) assessed as being data deficient.
In Britain records are so impoverished that the species may have been regularly subject to mis-identification, confused with T. caligatum, and therefore under-reported rather than being a genuine rarity.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is ectomycorryizal with species of conifer, most notably Abies spp.    The only British record obtained during the 50 year span of this assessment was taken in 1993 in Abernethy Forest, in Scotland. 
As the form of its name suggests ('matsutake' is of Japanese origin and means 'pine mushroom'), the species occurs most notably in Asia, but is also found in other parts of the world.   In Japan it is the most economically important edible mushroom.  The species is therefore commercially significant, and the harvest fetches a high price, but extensive harvesting has also led to decline in both Japan and China.   It occurs with variable frquency in Europe.   It is widely distributed in forests in Sweden, especially in the north of the country and in other Scandinavian areas, from where it is now exported to Japan.   In Europe it is estimated that there has been a 30% decline in the last 50 years due to various factors, but particularly attributable to unregulated harvesting.

 

Tricholoma orirubens  Quél.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 620
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 62 unique geo-referenced sites (620 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain, distribution of the species is largerly confined to lowland areas in the southern counties of England.   The most northerly limits of its range are currently in Cheshire and Yorkshire.    It does not occur in Scotland, and has been recorded only very infrequently in Wales.   It does not occur at altitudes in excess of 200m. and is thermophilic.   Terrestrial, on soil, it is ectomycorrizal with a range of broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus sylvatica.
In Europe the species is widespread but rare.  It is recorded in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Czech Republic, the Iberian Peninsula.   In Poland it is Red Listed as vulnerable.   There is an additional conservation issue in that, in Europe, it is a sought-after edible species.


Tricholoma pessundatum  (Fr.) Quél.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); NT (2006)
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is largely restricted to coniferous plantations and woodlands in the Scottish Highlands, extending as far north as Caithness.   It has been recorded occasionally in England, in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire, in Cumberland, and in Lincolnshire.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   Terrestrial, on soil, it has been found growing at altitudes of 300m. and occasionally up to 400m.   It appears to be mycorrhizal chiefly with Pinus sylvestris, less frequently with Picea spp.
In Europe the species is reported from coniferous forests in Bulgaria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and the Czech Republic.   It is Red Listed as 'rare' in most of these countries.  In Switzerland it is categorised as vulnerable.   There is an additional conservation issue in that, in Europe, it is a sought-after edible species.

 

Tricholoma populinum  J.E. Lange
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); VU(B) (2006)
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain, distribution of the species is largely confined to the southeast of England, most notably in Kent, Middlesex, and Surrey.   Scattered records occur from as far north as Yorkshire.   It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It is found in parklands, ornamental gardens, and mixed woodlands, terrestrial, on soil, in ectomycorrizal association with Populus spp.   It appears to be thermophilic, and is rarely recorded at altitudes in excess of 100m.   Principal threats include loss of suitable habitat resulting from felling and removal of poplar plantations, and urban encroachment.
In Europe the species presents a mixed picture in terms of frequency    In The Netherlands, for example, although it is listed as being fairly common across the country, it was Red Listed as vulnerable in 2008.   It is also Red Listed as vulnerable in Poland.   It is known to occur in Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, and elsewhere, where it may be locally common in poplar plantations, but often goes un-noticed.   There is an additional conservation issue in that, in Europe, it is a sought-after edible species.


Tricholoma robustum  (Alb. & Schwein.) Ricken
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); CR(B) (2006)
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 20
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 2 unique geo-referenced sites (20 mature individuals).   A very small, isolated population (Criterion D) assessed as being critically endangered.
In Britain the very limited number of records taken during the period of this assessment were obtained in 1975 and 2008, from two forested locations in the Scottish Highlands, Loch Garten and Cnoc Fyrish.   The species is terrestrial, occurs on soil, and is mycorrhizal with Pinus spp.   It has been subject to genome sequencing.   Reasons for the scarcity of records are unclear.
In Europe, the species has been recorded, with rare occurrence, in coniferous forests in Germany, The Netherlands, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Spain, Slovenia, and Sweden.

 

Tricholoma stans  (Fr.) Sacc.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 20 unique geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
The limited number of British records for the species largely stem from 2000 onwards, and are more or less confined to the Scottish Highlands, aside from one record taken in Lincolnshire in 1980, and a couple of records from the Bristol area in 2009.    It has not been recorded in Wales.   Terrestrial, favouring sandy soils, it occurs at altitudes up to 350m. and is mycorrhizal with Pinus sylvestris and possibly with some other Pinus spp.   A possible explanation for the scarcity of records lies in that this species can be confused with other similar-looking Tricholomas, including T. fracticum, T. ustale, T. ustaloides and T. imbricatum.   The species has been subject to genome sequencing.
In Europe the species is recorded infrequently in pine forests in Finland, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, and Sweden.  In Switzerland it has been Red Listed as vulnerable.


Tricholoma sulphurescens  Bres.
Previous assessment:  VU (1992); VU D2 (2006)
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 22 unique geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain the species is of limited distribution, largely restricted to three counties in the south of England - Gloucestershire, Hampshire, and Somerset.   A majority of the records stem from the Forest of Dean.   Scattered records exist from further afield, including a few from the northeast of England, and a single Scottish records, from Argyllshire.   It is a thermophilic, lowland species, rarely found at altitudes in excess of 100m.   Terrestrial, on soil, in woodlands, it is mycorrhizal with several species of broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus spp. and Quercus spp.
In Europe the species is widely distributed though generally regarded as rare, or very rare, and thermophilic.  It is recorded in France, Italy, Slovenia, Spain, and the Czech Republic.   In The Netherlands it has not been recorded since 1987 and may be extinct.  It is Red Listed in Norway as very rare and near threatened in its two known localities.

 

Tricholoma vaccinum  (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390  mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain, records for the species derive from areas that are widely separated geographically, as far north as the Orkney Islands, and south into Cornwall.   Terrestrial, it occurs on poor soils at a wide range of altitudes, from sea level  to rarely more than 250m.   It is ectomycorrhizal chiefly with Pinus spp. and Picea spp. but also with several other coniferous trees,  and is found growing in both mixed and coniferous woodlands and plantations.  The species has been genome sequenced.
In Europe the species has a widespread but variable distribution.   In some areas it is abundant, but in Russia, for example, it is uncommon, whilst in Spain it is a rarity.   It has been recorded specifically in montane regions of Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, and the Czech Republic.


 

Tricholoma viridilutescens  M.M. Moser
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain the very limited number of records are concentrated largely from Perthshire and Invernesshire in Scotland.  There is a handful of English records, as widely dispersed as Lancashire, Herefordshire and Hampshire.   It has not been recorded from Wales.   Terrestrial, favouring acid soils, generally occurring in mixed forests and woodlands, the species is often in alder carrs, and is frequently in association with Sphagnum moss.
In Europe the species is widely distributed in northern and eastern parts of the continent.   It is recorded in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Slovenia, and Spain, though generally described as rare, infrequent, or of scattered distribution.   In southern Sweden it is Red Listed as of least concern.   It is also Red Listed in the Czech Republic.   In Latvia it is noted to be very rare.

 

Volvariella caesiotincta   P.D. Orton
Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 320
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 32 unique geo-referenced sites (320 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain records are almost wholly restricted to the south of England, with occasional collections as far north as Shropshire, Lancashire, and Westmorland.   The strongest concentration of records stems from Gloucester, Kent, Surrey, and Wiltshire.   It is a lowland species rarely occurring at altitudes above 100m., in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, lignicolous, generally on rotted wood of Ulmus spp. (now in itself an uncommon commodity), less frequently on other broadleaf, and occasionally conifer wood.   The chief threat lies in the diminishing amounts of suitable substrate.   It was recorded most recently in Kent in September 2015.
In Europe the species is generally rare.   In the Czech Republic it is Red Listed as critically endangered.  In The Netherlands it is very rare, Red Listed as sensitive.   It is also Red Listed in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden.   It is known from Hungary where it is again rare and has been put forward for protection.   It has been recorded in Italy, Slovenia, and in Spain where it is encountered occasionally in the Navarre region.

 

Volvariella hypopithys   (Fr.) Shaffer
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 320
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 32 unique geo-referenced sites (320 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain the species has been recorded occasionally since the 1960s, ranging from the south coast as far north as Lancashire and Yorkshire.   On CATE2 single records are listed from East Lothian in Scotland, and from Anglesey.   It is a lowland species rarely occurring at altitudes in excess of 100m., terrestrial, encountered on soil and litter, in mixed woodlands, parklands, and very occasionally in fixed dune grasslands.  It is often found close to Fagus sylvaticus though whether in mycorrhizal association is unclear.   It was recorded most recently in 2012 at Newborough Warren on Anglesey.
In Europe the species is known from France, Germany, Italy, and Poland, but appears to have engendered little interest.

 

Volvariella murinella   (Quél.) M.M. Moser ex Dennis, P.D. Orton & Hora
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is largely restricted to the midlands and south of England, the strongest concentrations of records coming from Kent, Norfolk and Surrey.   Records extend as far north as Northumberland.   To date there are no records on CATE2 from Scotland or Wales.   The species is terrestrial, found on soil and litter in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, and it reveals no particular associations.   It is a lowland species, rarely encountered at altitudes above 100m.  It was recorded most recently in 2015, in parkland in North Somerset.
In Europe the species is rare throughout the continent.   It is has been recorded in Italy and Russia, and is believed to occur in Finland.   It is classed as rare, or very rare in Germany, Hungary, and Latvia.   It is Red Listed in the Czech Republic and Poland, again classed as a rarity.   It is Red Listed in The Netherlands as vulnerable and very rare, known from about twenty sites.  

 


Volvariella reidii   Heinem.
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain has been recorded very infrequently since the 1970s, and has not been recorded since October 2006 on fixed dunes in Aberdeenshire.   The species is terrestrial, and has been found on soil in woodlands and parks in a scattering of counties from the south coast northwards, at altitudes up to 250m.   It has not been reported from Wales.   It has been recorded previously as V. parvispora.   Reasons for the scarcity remain unclear.
In Europe the species is very sparsely reported, with few reliable records.   In The Netherlands it is Red Listed as being extremely rare, known from a single site.   It is Red Listed in Poland, and it has also been recorded in Hungary as a rare taxon.

 

Volvariella surrecta   (Knapp) Singer
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as vulnerable.
In Britain occurrence of the species is chiefly restricted to the southern counties, rarely encountered further north than Norfolk, though occasional records have been obtained as far north as Durham.    It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.  It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 100m.   It is parasitic and grows on the basidiomes of other agaric fungi, as a 'piggy-back'.   It was most recently recorded in November 2015 in south Hampshire.  
In Europe the species seems to be widely distributed, though considered to be rare throughout the continent, and it is generally Red Listed as vulnerable.   

 


Volvariella taylorii   (Berk. & Broome) Singer
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain, limited records of the species are restricted to the southern counties of England, extending no further north than Warwickshire, and occur at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It has been encountered in a variety of habitats from mixed woodlands to parks, gardens and saltmarsh, terrestrial, generally on grassy soils with no particular tree associations.    It has not, however, been recorded since September 2007, in Somerset, which must be of some cause for concern.  Reasons for the sparsity of records remain unclear.
In Europe the species appears to be of widespread distribution, but rare.   It is known from Bulgaria Germany, Italy, Poland, Sweden.   In Switzerland it is Red Listed as vulnerable, and in the Czech Republic as data deficient.   It is also Red Listed in Denmark where it is classed as being of least concern.

 

Volvariella volvacea   (Bull.) Singer
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 120
Estimated population: 1-10 basidiomes recorded at each of 12 unique geo-referenced sites (120 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed as endangered.
In Britain the very small number of records of this species are almost wholly restricted to parklands in Surrey, with scattered collections from a few other southern counties of England.   CATE2 includes only three records from further north, in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.   Terrestrial, the species occurs on soil and compost, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m., mainly in ornamental gardens, less frequently in woodlands.   There appear to be no distinct tree associations.   It was most recently recorded in December 2011 at Kew Gardens in Surrey.   The species has been DNA sequenced.
In Europe and Asia it is largely of interest as a cultivated species known as the 'paddy straw mushroom'.   It is mainly cultivated in south-east Asia and China.   It is little reported from the wild.

 

 


10. Site Protection and Threats

Many of the sites where red-listed species are recorded are designated Sites of Special
National Nature Reserves (NNR), Local Nature Reserves (NR) or Country Parks (CP).   Illustration:   Tricholoma orirubens    NNR (1);  NR (10); CP (3).   Even so, fungi are very rarely named among the special interest features, and therefore usually only receive indirect protection.

Threats to sites include:
• Habitat loss through development, tree felling (e.g. sweet chestnut).
• Appropriate management at inappropriate times such as carrying out mowing,
leaf blowing and mechanical bracken control during the fruiting season; use of tractors in
wet conditions leading to localised ploughing and severing of mycorrhizal roots.
• Lack of management such as allowing coarser vegetation to encroach, e.g. bramble,
bracken, grasses which inhibits fruiting and may be detrimental to fragile mycelia over
a long period.
• Picking of edible (and non-edible) basidiomes.
• Trampling and compaction of mycelium and/or basidiomes resulting from poorly-sited
public activities such as mountain biking, car parking and organised events with
checkpoints/refreshment/toilet areas sited on species-rich areas of parkland.

 

11. Recommendations for future recording of RDL species*

1. Estimated or actual basidiome numbers to be recorded as well as the number of discrete
patches of basidiomes under each individual host tree or at least 10m. apart.
2. 8-digit (GPS) grid references to be taken, where possible, for each discrete fruiting patch.
3. Targeted surveys to be undertaken of all red-listed species concentrating initially on
those sites with the longest gaps since the last records were made.
4. Voucher specimens (even a small section of a single basidiome) to be deposited in
national fungaria (RBG, Kew and Edinburgh), in instances where verification is deemed necessary.
5. Literature used for identification to be cited when a record/voucher is documented to try
to future-proof the record against taxonomic change.
6. Information on exact locations of red-listed species to be sent to owners/managers of all
designated and otherwise protected sites.

* Some of these proposals are of limited practicality in the field.   On any given foray, for a recorder to be endlessly taking 8-digit GPS references, is not realistic.   Most verification can now be carried out by local group recorders and sending off large numbers of voucher specimens is, again, impractical.   Citing literature sources used in identification for e.g. 70+ species recorded on a foray is, likewise, a theoretical ideal, but largely not feasible in practice.   Most recorders will have knowledge of a given species without any clear idea of the literature from which they first established its name.

 


13. Acknowledgements
Thanks go to the many UK recording groups and individual recorders that support the CATE2 database with their records, and in particular the many that contribute their data via the online recording module, which saves the administration team a considerable amount of cleaning and correcting work.    These sources provide the foundation for all fungus Red List assessments.

We acknowledge the financial support for the work of the Trust by organisations including RSPB,  the National Trust, and county wildlife trusts, as well as several individual volunteer donors.   We acknowledge, and are grateful to have received the kind support of David L. Hawksworth, whose foreword, editing, and suggestions for all sections of this report are appreciated.   We also acknowledge the considerable professional IT support in the development of CATE2, provided by our technology consultant, Geoff Hammond, much of it carried out on a voluntary basis.

 

14. References
Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels.  Version 4.0.
IUCN Species Survival Commission.   Revised by the National Red List working Group of the IUCN SSC Red List Committee.   IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, January 2010.

IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.   Version 3.1. Second Edition.
IUCN Species Survival Commission.   As approved by the 51st meeting of the IUCN Council, Gland, Switzerland, 9 February 2000.   IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2012

Documentation Standards and Consistency Checks for IUCN Red List Assessments and Species Accounts.   Version 2 (September 2013).   IUCN Red List Unit, Cambridge, UK.   IUCN 2013.

Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.   Version 11 (February 2014).
Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.  2014.

Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi, based on national and local database records, basidiome morphology, and microscopic anatomy.
By D. Bailey, J. Bailey, K. Davies, V. Davies,L. Hayward, P. Nichol & M. Jordan.   Published FCT 2015

Red Data List of Threatened British Fungi (2006).   A preliminary unpublished assessment prepared by the British Mycological Society.
By: S. Evans, A. Henrici, B. Ing.

A Provisional Red Data List of British Fungi.   Published in The Mycologist 9 (1992) 124-128.
By Bruce Ing, BMS Conservation Officerr, Chester.

Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. (2011).
By Anders Dahlberg & Gregory M. Mueller.
Published in Fungal Ecology 4 (2011) 147-162

 


 

Bibliography and selected sources of further information.

Bas, C., Kuyper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E., & Vellinga, E.C.   Flora Agaricina Neerlandica, Vol 3.   CVRC Press 1990.

Bas, C., Kuyper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E., & Vellinga, E.C.   Flora Agaricina Neerlandica, Vol 4.   Balkeema, Rotterdam 1999.

Breitenbach, J. & Kranzlin, F.   Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 3.   Lucerne 1991.

Breitenbach, J. & Kranzlin, F.   Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 4.   Lucerne 1995.

Breitenbach, J. & Kranzlin, F.   Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 5.   Lucerne 2000.

Buczacki, S.  Collins Fungi Guide.  London 2012.

Cetto, B.   I funghi dal vero  Trento 1970-1991.

Enderle, M.   Die Pilzflora des Ulmer Raumes   Auflage 2004.

Galli, R.   Gli Agaricus  Dalla Natura, Milano 1994.

Horak, E.   Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze in Europa. 6th edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag 2005. 

Knudsen H. & Vesterholt J.  Funga Nordica (eds) 2nd. edition.  2 volumes. Copenhagen 2012.

Jordan M.  Encyclopedia of Fungi of Great Britain and Europe.   Revised edition.  Frances Lincoln Ltd. 2004.

Legon N.W. & Henrici A.  Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota.   Kew 2005.

Neville, P. & Poumarat, S.   Fungi Europaei. Vol.9  Amaniteae.  Edizioni Candusso, Alassio 2004.

Uzelac, B.   Gljive Srbije, Izapadnog Balkana.   BGV Logic 2009 (not English translation).

Wojewoda W.   Checklist of Polish Larger Basidiomycetes   Krakow 2003

 

Contact details:

The Fungus Conservation Trust
Harveys
Alston
Axminster
Devon   EX13 7LG

01460 221788
mj@abfg.org

 



© Copyright 2015, The Fungus Conservation Trust.
Tel: +44 (0)1460 221788   Fax: +44 (0)1460 221788   Mob: 07964 789198   Email: enquiries@abfg.org
Website design by morphsites