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RED LISTS OF THREATENED SPECIES

 

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4

Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi,

based on national and local database records, fruit body

morphology, and microscopic anatomy

Conforming to:
the Guidelines for using IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria,
Version 11 (February 2014)
and IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. Second Edition
by:
Val Davies, Paul Nichol
Project manager: Michael Jordan, Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor

Copyright: The Fungus Conservation Trust 2017
Registered Charity

 

The Fungus Conservation Trust
20157 Species Status: Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi, based on national and local database records, fruit body morphology, and microscopic anatomy.

Project development team:

Val Davies: Recorder, Dean Fungus Group
Paul Nichol: Chair, Cumbria Fungus Group (former Chair, Notts. Fungus Group)
Michael Jordan: Project manager; CATE2 senior manager; Global & Regional IUCN Red List Assessor
This publication should be cited as:
V. Davies, M. Jordan, & P. Nichol, 2017.

 

Foreword

The Fungus Conservation Trust, and particularly Michael Jordan and the Trust's project team, are to be congratulated on preparing this fourth tranche of Red List assessments of a further 317 species. They have also managed to bring this to completion only three months after the third tranche appeared; a remarkable achievement and testament to their energy and commitment to putting fungal conservation in Great Britain onto a sound base.

Several of the genera treated here are both familiar and very species-rich, particularly Inocybe, Mycena, and Russula. Two of the genera treated here are of especial interest: many Inocybe species are toxic and can be fatal to dogs in particular, while Russula species form mycorrhizal associations with trees and so contribute to tree health. Marasmius and Mycena, however, are important decay fungi (saprobes) breaking down and so recycling dead plant material. The species in these genera are not always easy to identify with confidence, and this is one reason why not all names reported in them from Great Britain are treated here; the scientific status of some also requires more critical research prior to any assessment being considered. It is unfortunate that mycological systematics is so poorly supported in the country that all such resolutions are unlikely to be addressed for many years.

With over 14,000 fungal species reported from Great Britain and Ireland, a total that swells each year as additional species are discovered here for the first time, the majority remain unassessed. An assessment of all these species will be an on-going task, and of course the categorization of species has to be kept under review as more records are made. This additional tranche is a significant step forward along a very long road. The Trust is the only body currently actively undertaking this journey, and it is doing it from its own resources without any grants from national or other agencies. As mentioned in my Foreword to the third tranche, I hope the series can be continued, and that mechanisms of supporting field mycology and enhancing future assessments can be found.

Professor David L Hawksworth CBE
Hon. President, International Mycological Association
Ashtead, Surrey, 8 July 2017

 

 

9.   Results: assessments for RDL taxa. (omitting LC)

 

Hemimycena angustispora  (P.D. Orton) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the limited number of records for the species stems wholly from the southermost English counties of Kent, Somerset and Surrey (the latter before the period of this assessment).   It has been recorded in a few mixed woodlands in lowlands, amongst litter, in association with broadleaf trees.   It was most recently recorded at Winscombe in North Somerset in November 2015.   One significant reason for the paucity of records lies in that there is very little available literature describing the species.  First described by Peter Orton, it was named by Singer only in 1962.   It may need further investigation.
In Europe it is recorded sparsely and as in Britain may be overlooked or confused with other Hemimycena species.   Its occurrence has been noted in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, The Netherlands and Slovakia.   It is generally described as being extremely rare.

 

Hemimycena candida  (Bres.) Singer  

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 430
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 43 unique geo-referenced sites (430 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records are mainly restricted to the southern counties of England, most notably those of Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, although it has been recorded as far north as south Lancashire.   The CATE2 database currently holds no records from Scotland or Wales.   It is host specific, growing on the roots of Symphytum officinale (Comfrey), in woodlands, field margins, gardens, parks and roadside verges, at altitudes not exceeding 250m.   It was most recently recorded in November 2016 in Ringwood Forest in Dorset.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands where it is described as rare, Poland, Slovakia and southern Sweden where it is considered to be of least concern.


 

Hemimycena cephalotricha   (Joss. ex Redhead) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 230
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 23 unique geo-referenced sites (230 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, though perhaps in reality vulnerable and under-recorded.
In Britain occurrence is widespread, but very patchy.   In England the largest concentration of records stems from Sussex, but the species has been recorded from the Isle of Wight to Yorkshire.   Limited records have come from Scotland, as far north as Sutherland.   There is currently an isolated record from Wales  (Gwent) where it was most recently recorded, in June 2012.   The species is found in mixed woodlands, wooded heaths, parks and gardens.   It grows on litter and the rotten wood of broadleaf trees, in lowlands, at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   Principal threats include the removal of brash and excessive tidying of habitats.   It may also be data deficient.
In Europe it is recorded from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy and Spain.   It is listed in the Danish Red Data book, though not categorised.

 

Hemimycena crispata   (Kühner) Singer 

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A small, fragmented population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain occurrence of the species is apparently widespread, from Kent on the south coast as far north as Sutherland, but records are very limited.   It is found in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, growing on litter, most commonly in the proximity of Fagus sylvatica, at altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   Records on CATE2 commence only in 1960 and the species was most recently recorded near Edinburgh in February 2012.   Reasons for the paucity of records remain unclear though it may have been overlooked.   It may therefore also be data deficient.
In Europe it is recorded in The Netherlands as being fairly rare, though not threatened; in Poland it is Red Listed as endangered; it also Red Listed in Denmark, where it is data deficient.  It has been recorded in Finland, France and Germany, though with little detail available.


 

Hemimycena delectabilis  (Peck) Singer  

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 550
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 55 unique geo-referenced sites (550 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records are fairly well distributed in the southern half of England, but reduce noticeably in more northern counties.   In Scotland there are limited records from the southern lowlands and very occasionally further north.   There are currently no records from Wales.   It is found growing on litter, in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It is probably thermophilous.  It was most recently recorded in July 2016 in midwest Yorkshire.
In Europe the species is fairly widely distributed.   It is Red Listed as vulnerable in Poland and of least concern in Denmark.   It is also recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden.

 

Hemimycena epichloe   (Kühner) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain records are sparse and very patchy.   It has been recorded only a few times in England, in diverse locations from Kent to south Lancashire.   The CATE2 database holds two records from the Scottish lowlands and none from Wales.   It tends to favour grassy soils in pastures, parklands, hedgerows and fixed dunes, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It was most recently recorded in July 2012 in a park in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe it is recorded occasionally in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands and Russia.


 

Hemimycena hirsuta   (Tode) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 260
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 26 unique geo-referenced sites (260 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records are fairly sparse and very scattered.   It has been recorded in England, periodically, in diverse locations from Cornwall to Yorkshire though records are mainly concentrated in the more southern counties.   There are very occasional records from the Scottish lowlands, as far north as Perthshire.   The CATE2 database holds no records from Wales.   The species is found mainly in broadleaf woodlands, growing on litter, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, where it is Red Listed of least concern, Finland, Germany, Greece and Norway.

 

Hemimycena mairei   (E.-J. Gilbert) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 740
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 74 unique geo-referenced sites (740 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the fairly sparse records are largely concentrated in the southern counties of England, extending as far north as Warwickshire and south Lancashire.  It is not known to occur in Scotland.   There are very sparse records from Gwent in Wales.   It occurs in grassy soil and litter, in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, almost exclusively in association with Poaceae, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It was most recently recorded in December 2015, in Liverpool.
In Europe the species is recorded occasionally in France, Italy and Spain.   In Hungary it is regarded as highly endangered.  It is Red Data listed as threatened in The Netherlands; very rare in Germany with threats that are unclear; and endangered in the Czech Republic and Switzerland.  It is also Red Data listed in Denmark though categorised as of least concern.

 


Hemimycena mauretanica   (Maire) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 280
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 28 unique geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain records are sparse and very scattered.   It has been recorded in England, periodically, in diverse locations from the south coast, as far north as Northumberland.   There are isolated records from the Scottish lowlands and from Wales.  The species occurs in mixed woodlands, unimproved grasslands and ocasionally in parks and gardens.  It is found mainly fruiting in proximity to broadleaf trees and herbaceous plants, on litter, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It was most recently recorded in Manchester in March 2017.
In Europe it appears to be very poorly recorded.

 

Hemimycena pseudocrispula   (Kühner) Singer
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the species is severely under-recorded and has been identified only at scattered locations in the south of England.   It fruits on litter, mainly but not exclusively associated with broadleaf trees and herbaceous plants.   It has been found growing at altitudes up to 200m.   It has not, however, been recorded since November 2009.   We believe it may have been previously overlooked or wrongly identified and have therefore categorised for the moment it as being data deficient rather than critically endangered.
In Europe it is infrequently recorded in France and Germany.   It is also considered rare in The Netherlands, found in only a few very scattered locations.


Hemimycena pseudolactea   (Kühner) Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the CATE2 database holds a few records obtained from widely scattered locations extending from the south coast of England, to Caithness in Scotland.  The species fruits on litter, mainly but not exclusively associated with coniferous trees, in plantations, mixed woodlands and gardens.   It has been found at altitudes up to 250m.    It was most recently recorded in June 2016 in the New Forest in Hampshire.   We believe that it may previously have been overlooked or misidentifed.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Serbia, Slovenia and Sweden.   It is presumed to occur in Finland, but no data are available.   It is also considered data deficient in Denmark and The Netherlands.

 

Inocybe acuta  Boud. 
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 610
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 61 unique geo-referenced sites (610 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, CATE2 records indicate that the species is fairly widely dispersed from Devon on the south coast of England, to southern Scotland.   Records from Wales, however, are very sparse.   It occurs on soil, in varying habitats, ranging from coniferous plantations to fixed dune grasslands, at altitudes from sea level up to 300m.   It is found with both broadleaf and coniferous trees although, according to literature, it is most frequently associated with Picea, Salix, Betula and Alnus.   It is highly toxic.   Reasons for the sparsity of records remain unclear.   It was most recently recorded in northeast Yorkshire in September 2016.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in The Netherlands, although it is not currently considered to be threatened.   It is Red Listed as being of least concern in Sweden,   It is found either rarely or with extreme rarity in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is thought to occur in Finland but no data are available.   It is also listed as data deficient in the Czech Republic.

 
Inocybe agardhii   (N. Lund) P.D. Orton

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 56 unique geo-referenced sites (560 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, CATE2 records indicate that the species is fairly widely dispersed from Kent on the south coast of England, to the northermost counties of Scotland.   Records from Wales, however, are limited.   It occurs typically on sandy soils, more or less exclusively in mycorrhizal association with species of Salix and Betula, in varying habitats from fixed dune grasslands, to dune slacks, sand and gravel pits, at lowland altitudes from sea level up to about 150m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in Caithness in September 2015.
In Europe it is recorded infrequently or very rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, the Iberian peninsula, The Netherlands and Slovakia.   In both Denmark and southern Sweden it is Red Listed as being of least concern.   It is also Red Listed in Switzerland, though is considered data deficient.   It is believed to occur in Finland but no data are available.    

 

Inocybe albomarginata   Velen.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of xx unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
British records on CATE2 are very limited and arise by and large in the southern counties of England, predomantly from Gloucester and Somerset.    However, Isolated records have been obtained from as far north as the Orkney Islands.   There are currently no records from Wales.   The species occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, chiefly in association with a limited range of broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus sylvatica.   It is found from lowland altitudes, up to 300m.   It has not been recorded since 2010 when it was last found in Gloucestershire.   It is highly toxic.   Reasons for the sparsity of records are unclear.   However, the species is not commonly included in guide books and it can only be determined microscopically with any degree of certainty.   It may thus sometimes be overlooked, or confused with other superficially similar species.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden.   It is Red Listed as vulnerable in The Netherlands.

 

Inocybe albovelutipes   Stangl
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered bordering on being critically endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded in only six locations since the late 1960s.   It occurs on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in association with Betula and Salix.  It is also recorded occasionally with conifers. It has been found at a range of altitudes up to 350m.   It is highly toxic.  It was last recorded in Buckinghamshire in 2010.
In Europe the species has also been recorded very infrequently.    We have found isolated records from Poland.   It appears to be more common, however, in the Americas.
 

Inocybe amethystina   Kuyper
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.

In Britain the species has been recorded rarely and its distribution is largely restricted to the southern counties of England, occasionally extending as far north as Yorkshire.  There is a single record in CATE2 from Denbighshire in Wales.    It has not been recorded in Scotland.   It occurs on soil in association with a range of broadleaf and coniferous trees, at lowland altitudes not exceeding 150m.   It was last recorded in September 2016, at Swinsty Reservoir in Yorkshire.   It is highly toxic.   Reasons for the sparsity of records are unclear.   The species has been DNA sequenced.

In Europe the species is recorded with rather more frequency, in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.   It is Red Listed, though as being of least concern, in Denmark.  In The Netherlands it is regarded as rare, mainly confined to the northeast of the country, but it is not currently placed in any Red List category.

 


Inocybe appendiculata   Kühner   

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 130
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 13 unique geo-referenced sites (130 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded very infrequently and the collections, from Wiltshire in southern England, as far north as Inverness in Scotland, have been scattered.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands, in association with both broadleaf and coniferous trees, chiefly Picea at altitudes up to 270m.   It is highly toxic.   It has not been recorded since October 2012 when it was found near Penrith in Cumberland.   The species is not often described in guide books and may thus have been overlooked.
In Europe it is generally regarded as being data deficient, but has been recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Spain.   It is Red Listed as vulnerable in Denmark.   In The Netherlands it is considered to be quite rare but currently not threatened.   It is considered to be near threatened in Finland, though with poor data.
 

Inocybe arenicola   (R. Heim) Bon
Previous assessment: 1992: VU; 2006: VU D2
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain records of the species come from a handful of coastal locations, more or less restricted to the Atlantic seaboard.   There is a doubtful record from sandy coastal farmland in East Norfolk.   It occurs typically on sandy soil, in fixed dune grasslands, mainly in mycorrhizal association with Salix repens.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in August 2015 at Penhale Sands, in West Cornwall.   The lack of frequency of the species is almost cetainly attributable to its precise ecological requirements and paucity of recording in such locations.
In Europe it is recorded in maritime regions of France, Germany, the Iberian peninsula, the Balearic Islands and Italy.   It is found infrequently in sandy areas of Slovenia.   In The Netherlands it is a rare coastal species and is Red Data listed as threatened.
 

Inocybe auricoma   (Batsch) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 490
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 49 unique geo-referenced sites (490 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records stem chiefly from the more southerly counties of England, most notably Devon, Gloucestershire and Norfolk.   There is a single record on CATE2 from Kindrogan in Scotland and a scattering of records have been obtained from Caernarvonshire in Wales.      It grows on soil in association with broadleaf trees, mainly Betula, Corylus, Fagus and Quercus.   It is a species of lowlands, occuring at altitudes less than 250m.   It is highly toxic.   It has not, however, been recorded since October 2005, when it was found in the Forest of Dean.   Reasons for the paucity of recent records are unclear.
 In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.   It is Red Data listed in Denmark as endangered.

 
Inocybe calospora   Quél.
Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 480
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 48 unique geo-referenced sites (480 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, distribution of the species is almost wholly restricted to the more southerly counties of England.   Ocasionally it is recorded in more northerly English counties.   It is also recorded periodically in Scottish lowlands.   Records from Wales are sparse.   It occurs on soil, in mixed woodlands, in association with various broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus and very occasionally with conifers, at altitudes rarely exceeding 300m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in September 2016 in the New Forest, in Hampshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Slovakia.    In The Netherlands it is determined to be quite rare and is Red Data listed as threatened.   In the Czech Republic it is also Red Data listed though as being data deficient.   It occurs in southern Sweden and in Finland and is Red Data listed in both countries as being of least concern.

 

Inocybe catalaunica  Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, bordering on critically so.
In Britain, records of the species are very sparse and most are in England, the majority stemming from the National Trust estate at Wellington Hill, in Oxfordshire.   A few come from further afield.   CATE2 holds a single record from Loch Garten, in Scotland and there are currently no records from Wales.   It grows on soil, in woodlands and scrub, mainly in association with Helianthemum nummularium, at altitudes not exceeding 225 m.   It is highly toxic.   The species has been DNA sequenced.   It was last recorded in October 2014 in Oxfordshire.
In Europe it is recorded infrequently in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Iberian peninsula and Balearic Islands, Italy, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.

 
Inocybe cervicolor   (Pers.) Quél.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 490
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 49 unique geo-referenced sites (490 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records of the species are largely restricted to the more southerly counties of England, most notably Hampshire, Kent, Somerset and Surrey.   It has been found very occasionally further north in England and there is a single record from Perthshire in Scotland.   A few records stem from the Welsh borders.   It grows on soil, in association mainly with broadleaf trees. It is most commonly encountered in mycorrhizal association with Fagus sylvatica.   Less frequently it is associated with with conifers, notably Picea and Pinus.   It is restricted to lowland altitudes.   It is highly toxic.   The species has been DNA sequenced.   It was last recorded in September 2014 in Somerset.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Slovakia and Spain.   It is Red Data listed as vulnerable in Denmark.

 

Inocybe cryptocystis   D.E. Stuntz

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very rarely, almost wholly in the southern counties of England, chiefly in Sussex.   CATE2 includes an isolated record obtained from Scotland.   It grows on soil, in association with broadleaf trees including Betula, Fagus and Quercus.   It is a species of lowland areas, thus far not having been recorded at altitudes greater than 80m.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in August 2014 in the Lael Forest in Scotland.   The species may have been regularly overlooked, since it is rarely described in field guides.
In Europe, it is recorded in Germany, Norway, Poland and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is rare and considered to be near threatened.   It is Red Data listed as vulnerable in Finland and it is also listed in Denmark, known from very limited locations.   In Sweden it is Red Data listed as being data deficient.
 

Inocybe duriuscula   Rea
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 320
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 32 unique geo-referenced sites (320 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded predominantly in the southwest of England, in the counties of Devon, Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire, with a further cluster of records stemming from a single site in South Lancashire.   A few scattered records have been obtained from elsewhere in England.   CATE2 holds two isolated records from Invernesshire in Scotland and none from Wales.   It grows on soil, chiefly in association with Fagus and Quercus, less commonly with other broadleaf trees and it is found occasionally with conifers.  It occurs at lowland altitudes not exceeding 150m.   It is highly toxic.  
In Europe it is recorded in France and Poland.   It occurs very rarely in Germany.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as threatened, occuring in only a few, chiefly coastal locations.

 

Inocybe erinaceomorpha   Stangl & J. Veselský
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed as critically endangered.
In Britain, very few records of the species have been obtained and almost all stem from two or three sites in Buckinghamshire, most notably Kings Wood at High Wyecombe.   There are also single, isolated records on CATE2 from Kent and Somerset.   No records have yet been obtained from Scotland or Wales.   It occurs on soil, in mycorrhizal association with Fagus sylvatica.   It is restricted to lowland altitudes not exceeding 200m.   It is highly toxic.  Reasons for the paucity of records remain unclear.   It was last recorded in Buckinghamshire in October 2015.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France and Germany.   It is Red Data listed in Denmark, though with no specific category of threat attached.  It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as vulnerable, known only from a few locations in the central region and from two isolated locations in the extreme north and south of the country.
 


Inocybe fibrosoides   Kühner
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 20 unique geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the small number of records stems largely from more southerly counties.   In England it has been found predominantly in areas on the western side of the country, most notably in Lancashire and Wiltshire.   It occurs on soil, in association generally with broadleaf trees including Corylus, Fagus and Quercus, but also less commonly with Larix and Picea.   It appears restricted to lowland areas at altitudes not exceeding 200m.   It is highly toxic.   It has only been recorded twice in the last ten years, in Lancashire in 2008 and in Yorkshire in 2012.   There must therefore be concerns for its continued survival, although it is another example of an Inocybe species that is rarely illustrated in guide books and for this reason it may sometimes be overlooked.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy and Slovenia.  In Sweden it is considered to be a rare species, found only in three current locations.   It is not known from any of the other Nordic countries.   In The Netherlands  occurence is more or less confined to a few sites in the south-central part of the country and it is Red Data listed as endangered.

 

Inocybe flavella  P. Karst.  
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 510
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 51 unique geo-referenced sites (510 mature individuals).   A compararatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently, but in widely scattered locations.   In England most records come from southern counties including Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, Kent and Sussex.  Frequency of records reduces further north.   There are a few Scottish records on CATE2, mainly from Aberdeenshire and Perthshire and there is an isolated record from Cardiganshire in Wales.   It occurs on soil, in association with a range of broadleaf trees, predominantly Populus and Salix.   It appears to be restricted to lowland altitudes, rarely exceeding 150m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in October 2014 in Caithness.
In Europe, it is recorded occasionally in Bulgaria, Italy, Norway and Sweden.   In The Netherlands there is widespread but infrequent occurrence.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as very rare and in Switzerland it is Red Data listed as being endangered.  It is also Red Data listed in Finland, though of least concern.

 

Inocybe furfurea   Kühner

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very rarely in the English counties of Buckinghamshire, Somerset, Surrey and in midwest Yorkshire.    It has also been recorded in Wales, at Moelfre in Anglesey.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   It grows on soil and it has been found in association with Corylus, Fagus and Quercus.  It appears to be restricted to lowland altitudes.   It is highly toxic.   The species has been DNA sequenced.   There are no clear explanations for the paucity of records.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is rare, confined to a few scattered locations and is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as endangered.

 

Inocybe fuscomarginata   Kühner
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, very few records have been obtained and most of these have come from a single site in Yorkshire.   There are occasional records from elsewhere in England.   There are currently no Scottish records.   CATE2 holds a single record from Newborough Warren, in Anglesey.   It occurs on sandy soil, mainly in association with Salix and occasionally Alnus, in fixed dunes, sand and gravel pits and sandy heaths.   It appear to be restricted to lowland altitudes not exceeding 70m.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in June 2016 at a location adjacent to the River Mersey in Lancashire.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden.  In The Netherlands it is recorded very rarely and is Red Data listed as threatened.   It is believed to occur in Finland but without evaluation to date.
 

Inocybe glabripes   Ricken
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 760
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 76 unique geo-referenced sites (760 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the occurrence of the species is widely distributed.   In England it is found from Dorset, to East Anglia, to Cumberland, though the greatest concentration of records stems from the southeastern counties.   There are scattered records throughout Scotland as far north as the Orkney Islands and very occasional records come from Wales.   It is, however, generally regarded as a difficult species to identify.   It is found on soil in mixed woodlands in association with a range of broadleaf trees, most commonly Fagus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 200m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in October 2015 at Sleightholmdale in northeast Yorkshire.
In Europe it has been recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain.   It has been Red Data listed in The Netherlands though currently it is not threatened.

 

Inocybe glabrodisca   P.D. Orton
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A very small, largely restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, it has been recorded rarely in England, at a few locations, chiefly in Yorkshire.   It has also been encountered as far south as the New Forest in Hampshire.   The species has not been recorded in Scotland.   There is a single record on CATE2 from Gwynedd in Wales.   It occurs on soil in woodlands with broadleaf trees, mainly in association with Fagus and Quercus.   It has been found growing at a wide range of altitudes from 35m. to 400m.  Reasons for the paucity of records are unclear.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in August 2014 at Bolton Abbey in midwest Yorkshire.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy.    In The Netherlands it is considered to be quite rare and is Red Data listed as endangered.  It also occurs infrequently in southern Sweden where it is Red Data listed as of least concern.

 

Inocybe grammata  Quél.  

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 530
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 53 unique geo-referenced sites (530 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable
In Britain, the species is recorded infrequently.  In England most of the records have been obtained from the more southerly counties of Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   It occurs less frequently in other English counties, extending north to the Scottish borders.   In Scotland it has been recorded as far north as Crubenmore in Invernesshire.   It has been found very infrequently in Wales.    It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands and parklands, in association with both broadleaf and coniferous trees including Betula, Fagus, Quercus, Picea and Pinus.   It is generally restricted to lowland altitudes below 250m. although it has been found growing at 400m. at Malham Tarn in midwest Yorkshire.   It is highly toxic.   The species has been DNA sequenced.   It was most recently recorded in September 2015 at Pitlochry in Perthshire.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently or rarely in Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed in Poland as vulnerable and in Denmark as being of least concern.   In the Czech Republic it is also Red Data listed though regarded as being data deficient.   It is believed to occur in Finland though of least concern for conservation.

 

Inocybe haemacta   (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 530
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 53 unique geo-referenced sites (530 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records of the species have been obtained chiefly from more southern counties of England, including Kent and Surrey.   Its range extends as far north as Yorkshire though with dimishing frequency.   It has been recorded very infrequently in Scotland, in Invernesshire.   In Wales it has been recorded at a single location in Caernarvonshire.   It grows on soil in woodlands and parks, in association with broadleaf trees including mainly Corylus and Fagus.  It is also reported to grow in association with Taxus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely occuring at altitudes above 200m.  The species may frequently be mis-identified as I. fraudans or even I. corydalina although it can be recognised easily in the field by its reddening flesh and green stipe base.  It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in August 2014 at Addingham Woods, in Yorkshire.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands and Slovakia.   It is Red Data listed as being rare in Denmark.
 

Inocybe impexa   (Lasch) Kuyper

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as critically endangered, verging on extinction.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded during the last 100 years, in scattered locations from south Somerset in England, to Morayshire in Scotland and Gwent in Wales.   It is generally found close to the coast, favouring sandy soils in fixed dunes and mixed maritime woodlands.   It appears restricted to lowland altitudes.    However, in the 50-year period covered by this assessment, it has only been reported four times, twice at Aintree N.N.R. in Lancashire and twice at Merthyr Mawr N.N.R. in Gwent.   It is highly toxic.   It appears to be heavily dependent on appropriate coastal dune management and may be in danger of extinction.
 In Europe it is recorded in Finland, Germany, Latvia, Norway and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is extremely rare, possibly extinct, since it has not been recorded since 1987.   It is also Red Data listed in Denmark as being data deficient.

 

Inocybe incarnata   Bres.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the bulk of records for this species stem from more southerly counties of England, in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire.   Very infrequently, English records have been obtained from as far north as Durham.   There are isolated single records from southern Scotland and from Newport in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands and parks, generally in association with Fagus and Helianthemum.  It is found at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It is highly toxic.    It was last recorded in October 2015 at National Trust, Watlington Hill, in Oxfordshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and Slovakia.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being extremely rare, known from about ten locations and classed as vulnerable.

 
Inocybe inodora   Velen.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, close to being critically endangered, but perhaps also data deficient.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very rarely in a few English counties from Devon to Westmorland.   There are single records on CATE2 from Inverness in Scotland and from Anglesey in Wales.    However, it is possible that it has been confused with other Inocybe species that are macroscopically similar, including I. lacera and I. pruinosa, thus accounting to some extent for the paucity of records.   It favours sandy soils, in dune slacks and dune grasslands, in maritime locations, most frequently in association with Salix repens.   However, it has also been recorded at scattered inland locations including parts of Hertfordshire and Leicester, though at altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It is highly toxic.   The species has been DNA sequenced.   It was last recorded in October 2016 in Sherwood Forest, in Nottinghamshire.
In Europe, it is recorded either rarely or very rarely, in France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare and critically endangered.   It is also Red Data listed in Denmark, though regarded as data deficient.   It is Red Data listed of least concern in Finland.


Inocybe jacobi  Kühner
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded at a few scattered locations, from Kent and East Sussex on the south coast of England, to Doune Ponds in Perthshire.   It may, however, be confused with I. petiginosa.   It occurs on sandy soils, generally in association with Pinus, but it has also been found with Picea and Salix.   It has not been recorded at altitudes above 250m.   It is highly toxic.   The most recent record was collected in Westerham Wood, in Kent, in August 2009.   As some European surveys indicate, the species may be data deficient rather than genuinely scarce.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in Finland,Germany, Hungary, Poland and Sweden.   In the Czech Republic and in Denmark it is Red Data listed as data deficient.   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands, but is currently considered not threatened.

 

Inocybe leptocystis   G.F. Atk.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species is rarely recorded.   In England it has been identified at scattered locations, chiefly in Lancashire and Yorkshire, but also as far south as Surrey and Wiltshire.   It has also been recorded at Peebles in southern Scotland and there is a single record from 1978 as far north as mid-Perthshire.   It grows on soil in mixed woodland, in association mainly with Betula and Fagus, but also with Pinus.  It is found at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.  It is highly toxic.   It has not, however, been recorded since August 2005 in midwest Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded very rarely in Finland, Germany and Italy.   In The Netherlands it is described as being extremely rare and has not been recorded since 1990.


 

Inocybe leptophylla   G.F. Atk.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species is fairly widely distributed though it is recorded infrequently.   In England records extend from Cornwall in the southwest, to Norfolk in the east.   There are very isolated records from Scotland as far north as Rothiemurchus in Invernesshire.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in association with an assortment of broadleaf trees, most commonly Betula, Corylus and Fagus.   It has also been found, occasionally, with Pinus.  It is a species generally confined to lowlands and only rarely occurs at altitudes in excess of 150m.   It is highly toxic.    It was most recently recorded in October 2014 in East Cornwall.
In Europe, occurrence is scattered.  It is recorded in Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as quite rare and threatened.   It is also Red Data listed in the Czech Republic and Denmark, though as data deficient.

 

Inocybe margaritispora   (Berk.) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 840
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 84 unique geo-referenced sites (840 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is recorded infrequently, the largest concentration of collections coming from the southwestern counties of England, most notably Devon, Somerset and Wiltshire.   It is occasionally found further north.   There are very sparse records from the Scottish lowlands and from Wales.     It favours calcium-rich soils, in mixed woodlands, in association with a range of broadleaf trees, mainly Fagus and Fraxinus.  It is a species of lowlands, rarely occuring at altitudes exceeding 200m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in October 2016 at Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe the species is recorded periodically in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, where it is described as being rare, Slovenia and Spain.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.
 

 

Inocybe muricellata   Bres.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, a limited number of records derive chiefly from more southerly English counties, including Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire, Surrey and Wiltshire.   The range extends as far north as Lancashire and Durham.   There is a single extant record from Peebles in the Scottish lowlands.   The species has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil in mainly broadleaf woodlands, where it is principally found in mycorrhizal association with Fagus, less frequently with Alnus and Betula.   It has also been recorded in association with conifers including Larix, Pinus and Pseudotsuga.   It is found at altitudes generally below 150m.   It is highly toxic.    It was most recently recorded in September 2015 near West Dean in Wiltshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is identified as being quite rare and Red Data listed as threatened.  In both Denmark and Sweden it is also Red Data listed, though of least concern.

 

Inocybe nitidiuscula   (Britzelm.) Lapl.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1040
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 104 unique geo-referenced sites (1040 mature individuals).   A moderately-sized population (Criterion D) assessed currently as near threatened.
In Britain the species is widely distributed though the largest concentration of records stems from the more southerly counties of Gloucestershire, Norfolk and Somerset.  Occurrence thins out northwards.   There are limited records from the Scottish lowlands.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs on soil, in mixed woodlands, parks and scrubby areas.  Literature indicates a mycorrizal association with Alnus but in CATE2 records it tends to be associated with a wide range of broadleaf trees and occasionally with conifers.   The species is highly toxic.   It has been DNA sequenced.   It was last recorded in October 2015 in Yorkshire.
In Europe the species is quite widely distributed, though uncommon and is found, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   In Denmark it Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Inocybe oblectabilis   (Britzelm.) Sacc.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 17 unique geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been sparsely recorded, chiefly in the southern counties of England, including most notably Oxfordshire and Surrey.   Records in England extend as far north as Durham, though very rarely.   There is an isolated record from Westerness in Scotland and one from Denbighshire in Wales.   It would appear to be thermophilic.   It grows on soil in an assortment of habitats from mixed woodlands, to scrub, parks and gardens.      It occurs in association with various broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus and Quercus and it has been recorded once in association with Picea.    It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes in excess of 200m.   It is highly toxic.   
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden, but generally with little indication of scarcity or otherwise.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare and threatened.

 
Inocybe obscurobadia   (J. Favre) Grund & D.E. Stuntz

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is recorded infrequently.   The bulk of English records stems from Buckinghamshire, with some coming from other more southerly counties including Somerset, Surrey and Sussex.  A very few are from as far north as Yorkshire.  There are also isolated Scottish records.  It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil, in broadleaf woodlands, mainly in association with Fagus but also less frequently with Betula, Quercus and Salix.   CATE2 holds a very small number of records where it is associated with conifers including Picea, Pseudotsuga and Taxus.  It occurs mainly at lowland altitudes below 200m.   It is highly toxic.     It was last recorded in August 2015 at Bolton Abbey in Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently or very rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Italy, Slovakia and southern Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being quite rare and vulnerable.   It is also Red Data listed in Denmark, though categorised as of least concern.



Inocybe obsoleta   (Quadr. & Lunghini) Valade

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species is recorded infrequently, in widely scattered locations, from Sussex on the south coast of England, to Wester Ross in the Scottish Highlands.   There is a single 2013 record from Radnorshire in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands and is generally found in association with Fagus sylvatica, less often with other broadleaf trees.   CATE2 holds a single doubtful record with Larix.   It occurs at altitudes up to 250m.    It is highly toxic.    It was most recently recorded in October 2015 in Oxfordshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland and Slovakia.    In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being very rare but currently not threatened.   In Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 
Inocybe ochroalba   Bruyl.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is recorded infrequently in widely scattered locations.   In England it is found from Cornwall in the far southwest, to Westmorland.   Frequency in Scotland is reduced, but records extend as far north as Caithness.   CATE2 holds a single record from Gwynedd in Wales.    It grows on soil, favouring lighter sandy soils, in mixed woodlands and other wooded sites.  It is associated with a range of broadleaf trees, chiefly Betula, Fagus and Quercus.   It is found less frequently in association with Pinus sylvestris.   It occurs generally at lowland altitudes not exceeding 250m.   The species can be problematic to identify in the field, since it is very variable in external appearance.   It is highly toxic.     It was last recorded in Regents Park, London, in November 2015.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Sweden,   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being quite rare and vulnerable.
 


Inocybe ovatocystis   Boursier & Kühner

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 420
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 42 unique geo-referenced sites (420 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is not commonly recorded, but it is widely distributed.   In England it has been found from Sussex on the south coast, as far north as Cumberland and North Yorkshire.   In Scotland there is a similar widespread distribution, from Argyllshire to Caithness.   It has been poorly recorded, however, in Wales.   It grows on soil, in association with a range of trees.   It is found in coniferous forests, predominantly mycorrizal with Pinus sylvestris, but it also occurs infrequently in broadleaf woodlands.    It is found at altitudes rarely exceeding 250m. although it has been recorded in Braemar in the Scottish Highlands, for example, at an altitude well in excess of 500m.  The species has been DNA sequenced.  It is highly toxic.    It was last recorded in September 2016 at Rosedale in Northeast Yorkshire.
In Europe it is little recorded.   It has been found rarely in Germany, Latvia, Slovakia and The Netherlands where it is fairly widespread though Red Data listed as vulnerable.

 

Inocybe paludinella   (Peck) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very rarely and only in the south of England.   The few collections extend from Devon on the south coast, as far north as Northamptonshire.   It grows on soil, in broadleaf woodlands and is found chiefly in association with Corylus and Salix.   It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 50 metres and appears to be thermophilous.   It is highly toxic.   It has not, however, been recorded since September 2007 when it was found in the New Forest in Hampshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Spain and Sweden.   In Poland it is Red Data listed as endangered.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as quite rare and threatened.  In Denmark it is also Red Data listed though no criteria are indicated.


 

Inocybe pelargonium   Kühner

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very rarely.   Records have been restricted to English counties, extending from Devon on the south coast, to midwest Yorkshire.    CATE2 holds a single Scottish record from Stirlingshire in 2011.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands, in association with broadleaf trees including Betula, Corylus and Fagus, but also less frequently with Picea.   With rare exception it appears to be a species of lowlands, not occurring at altitudes in excess of 150m.   The exception is a 1958 record from Malham Tarn N.N.R. taken at 400m.  It is highly toxic.    It was last recorded in July 2012 at East Horsley in Surrey.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed though of only moderate rarity and presently not threatened.    It is also Red Data listed in Denmark, categorised as being near threatened.
 

Inocybe perlata   (Cooke) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 340
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 34 unique geo-referenced sites (340 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently.   A majority of the records stem from the southeast of England, in the counties of Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   It has been found no further north than north Yorkshire and has not been found to occur, to date, in Scotland or Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands, in association with broadleaf trees chiefly Fagus and Quercus.   It is only found at altitudes below 250m. and is probably thermophilic.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in September 2015 on Strensall Common in northeast Yorkshire.
In Europe  it is recorded rarely or with extreme rarity in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Sicily and Sweden.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.   In Switzerland it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.
 

Inocybe phaeodisca   Kühner

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 720
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 72 unique geo-referenced sites (720 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded periodically, in a few English counties on the western side of the country, notably Gloucestershire, Somerset, Westmorland and Wiltshire.   It has been found much less frequently in the eastern half of the British Isles.  Its range extends north as far as midwest Yorkshire.   In Scotland and Wales records are very sparse.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands, in association with a range of broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus and Corylus.  Isolated records appear to indicate an association with conifers, though this is doubtful.  It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It is highly toxic.    It was last recorded in the Forest of Dean in September 2016.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Slovakia and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare but presently not threatened.   In Norway it is Red Data listed as of least concern.  In Poland it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.
 

Inocybe phaeoleuca   Kühner

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 800
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 80 unique geo-referenced sites (800 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the distribution of the species is fairly evenly spread.   In England records extend from Devon in the southwest, to Lancashire, though they predominantly stem from the more southerly counties.   There are occasional records on CATE2 from Scotland as far north as Braemar in the Highlands.   Records from Wales are more isolated.  It occurs on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with Fagus and Quercus.   It is generally a species favouring lowland altitudes, but occasionally it has been found at up to 350m.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in June 2016 at Broadbridge Heath in West Sussex.

In Europe the species is recorded rarely or very rarely in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Spain.   In Sweden it is very rare and Red Data listed as near extinction.  In Germany it is Red Data listed as being endangered though to an unknown extent.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed, though as being currently not threatened.

 

Inocybe posterula   (Britzelm.) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently though records are widely dispersed from Dorset on the south coast of England, to Aberdeenshire in Scotland.   A majority of collections stem from the southeast of England, extending as far as the midland counties, notably Nottinghamshire.   A small number of records are from as far north as Invernesshire in the Scottish highlands and CATE2 holds a single record from Denbighshire in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands and parks, chiefly in association with Pinus, less frequently with other conifers.   There are very limited records in CATE2 in doubtful association with broadleaf trees including Fagus.   It occurs at lowland altitudes not exceeding 200m.   It is highly toxic.   It has not been recorded since December 2011 at Langold in Nottinghamshire.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or very rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed in Norway as being of least concern and in Denmark as being data deficient.

 

 Inocybe proximella   P. Karst.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 540
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 54 unique geo-referenced sites (540 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently.   In England most of the records stem from more southerly counties of Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire and Warwickshire, extending as far north as Durham, though with lesser frequency.   In Scotland, records are widely distributed, chiefly in Aberdeenshire and extending as far north as Caithness.   There are isolated records from Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands, favouring wet, mossy habitats, in association with broadleaf trees, most notably Alnus and Betula.   It also occurs regularly with Pinus sylvestris and other conifers.   It is found at altitudes ranging from near sea level, up to 500m., though it is described in literature as being essentially montane in habit.   It is highly toxic.    It was last recorded in October 2016 at Keswick in Cumberland.
In Europe, it is recorded sparsely in Finland, Germany and Italy.    In The Netherlands it has been Red Data listed as being probably extinct.   Otherwise there is little evidence of European collections.

 

Inocybe pruinosa   R. Heim
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species is very rarely encountered and with few exceptions records stem from coastal areas of Scotland and Wales.   Distribution is restricted to fixed dune grasslands and coastal scrub  where it occurs in mycorrhizal association with Salix repens, at altitudes rarely exceeding 10m.   It is highly toxic.   Chief threats include rising sea levels and inappropriate dune management.    It was last recorded in August 2012 at Newborough Warren, Anglesey.
In Europe, it is recorded with extreme rarity in France, Germany, Poland and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as very rare and critically endangered, currently known only from three locations in the central part of the country.   It Denmark it is Red Data listed as data deficient.

 

Inocybe pseudodestricta Stangl & J. Veselský   

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A small, fragmented population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very sparsely recorded.  On CATE2 records stem chiefly from Buckinghamshire and Nottinghamshire, with a few scattered collections from other counties.  There are two isolated records from Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil, mainly in broadleaf woodlands and parklands, where it occurs chiefly in association with Betula, Fagus and Quercus.   It is found at lowland altitudes of less than 200m.   It is highly toxic.   It has been DNA sequenced.   The most recent record dates from September 2015 in North Somerset.
In Europe, it is recorded occasionally in Finland, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being quite rare and vulnerable.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being data deficient.
 


Inocybe pusio P. Karst.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 980
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 98 unique geo-referenced sites (980 mature individuals).   A population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In more southerly parts of Britain the species is fairly widely distributed, though not common.   In England it is recorded from Dorset as far north as Yorkshire, but its main strongholds lie in Devon and Buckinghamshire.   CATE2 holds very few records from Scotland and only an isolated record from Gwent in Wales.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, mainly in association with Fagus and Quercus.  There have been isolated collections in coniferous woodlands.   It is generally restricted to lowlands though it has been recorded in the Scottish Highlands at an altitude of 400m.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in November 2016 at Swinsty Reservoir in Yorkshire.
In Europe the species is recorded in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain and more southerly parts of Sweden where it is Red Data listed of least concern.

 

Inocybe putilla  Bres.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, close to being critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded, mainly in the more southerly counties of England.   There are isolated records from Durham and Yorkshire.   There are also two records on CATE2 from the Scottish Highlands.   It has not been recorded in Wales.  It grows on soil, in broadleaf woodlands and parks, in mycorrhizal association with Quercus.  It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.  It is highly toxic.    It was most recently recorded in November 2016 at Winlaton in Durham.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway and Sweden,    In The Netherlands it has not been recorded since 1990 and may be extinct.  It is also Red Data listed as being probably extinct in Poland.
 


Inocybe salicis  Kühner  
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered
In Britain, the species has been sparsely recorded, mainly in counties on the western side of England, including Devon, Gloucestershire and Westmorland.   A smaller number of records stem from Surrey.   There are occasional records from Scotland and none from Wales.   It favours sandy locations, including Sandscale Haws NNR and Dawlish Warren, generally at lowland altitudes close to sea level and very rarely exceeding 150m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in July 2011 at the National Trust site of Frensham in Surrey.
In Europe, it is recorded in France, Germany, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being generally rare but not currently threatened.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.
 

Inocybe sambucina   (Fr.) Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 240
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 24 unique geo-referenced sites (240 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered though this might change to vulnerable in the near future.
In Britain the species has been recorded infrequently.   In England a majority of the records stem from the southeastern counties of Kent, Surrey and Sussex.  There are other scattered records from southwestern counties including Cornwall, Gloucestershire and Somerset.   In Scotland the main collections have been made in Invernesshire, Morayshire and Perthshire.   It is found mainly in mixed and coniferous woodlands, on soil, in association with Pinus and Larix.   It is generally considered to be a montane species though in Britain it occurs at altitudes ranging from 10m. to 400m.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in October 2015 in Garmston Wood, Nottinghamshire.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or very rarely.   It is known from the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being critically endangered, having declined substantially in the last 25 years.  In Germany it is Red Data listed as severely endangered and in Switzerland as being endangered.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.

Inocybe serotina   Peck

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species is encountered very rarely.   A majority of the records stem from Ainsdale N.N.R. in south Lancashire, with scattered records showing from other sites, extending from Kent to Northumberland.  There are isolated records from two coastal sites in Wales.   It grows specifically on sandy soil, in fixed dune grasslands adjacent to the sea, generally in mycorrhizal association with Ammophila arenaria and Salix repens.  It occurs at altitudes not greater than 10m.   It is highly toxic.    Principal threats include inappropriate sand dune management and rising sea levels.   It was most recently recorded in October 2016 at Teignmouth NNR in northeast Yorkshire.
In Europe, it has been located in coastal areas of Latvia and Poland.   In The Netherlands it is quite rare and is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   In Norway it is Red Data listed as being near threatened.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being data deficient.   Otherwise little information about distribution is available.
 

Inocybe soluta   Velen.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 700
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 70 unique geo-referenced sites (700 mature individuals).   A quite small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records of the species are moderately scarce, but in southern England they extend geographically over a wide area from Cornwall in the far southwest, to Sussex and Surrey.   In Scotland the bulk of records have been obtained in the Scottish Highlands.  Its range extends as far north as Caithness.   It grows on soil, typically in coniferous plantations in association with Pinus and Picea, but also allegedly with broadleaf trees including Betula and Fagus.  It is generally found at altitudes up to 300m. but occasionally higher.   It is highly toxic.   It was last recorded in September 2016, in Rumster Forest in Caithness.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Slovakia and Sweden.   It is Red Data listed in Denmark as being of least concern.


Inocybe splendens   R. Heim

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 440
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 44 unique geo-referenced sites (440 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is moderately scarce and with limited distribution.   In England records are mainly concentrated in the more southern counties, notably Buckinghamshire, Kent and Somerset.   Further north records thin out appreciably, though there are scattered collections from Yorkshire.   It has not been recorded in Scotland and there is only an isolated record from Pembrokeshire in Wales.   It is probably thermophilous.  It grows on soil in mixed woodlands and parklands, in association with a varied assortment of mainly broadleaf trees.  It is rarely found at altitudes greater than 150m.   It is highly toxic.    It was most recently recorded in September 2016 at Swinsty Reservoir in midwest Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently or rarely in The Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovenia and Spain.  It is Red Data listed in both The Netherlands and Denmark as being rare but of least concern.
 

Inocybe squamata   J.E. Lange

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is recorded infrequently.   In England it is distributed fairly widely in more southern counties, most notably Kent, Herefordshire, Leicestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire.   It has not been recorded further north than Westmorland and Yorkshire.   However, there is an isolated but reliable record collected in the Orkneys in 1992.   There is a further doubtful record on CATE2 from Gwent in Wales.    It grows on soil, in woodlands and ornamental gardens, in association with various broadleaf trees.   It is found at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It is highly toxic.   The species has been DNA sequenced.   It was most recently recorded in August 2015 at Lound N.R. in Nottinghamshire.
In Europe it is recorded occasionally or rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.  In The Netherlands it is considered to be generally rare and Red Data listed, though presently considered not to be threatened.   It is Red Data listed in Switzerland as vulnerable.

Inocybe squarrosa   Rea

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A small and restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, records of the species are very sparse, mostly arising in the southern half of England.   Occcasional collections have been obtained as far north as south Lancashire.   There is a questionable and otherwise isolated Scottish record from Dumfries and Galloway in 2004 and another isolated record from Gwent in Wales obtained in 1977.   It grows on soil, in wetlands and damp, boggy woodlands, in association with Alnus and Salix, generally at altitudes of less than 60m.  It is highly toxic.    Principal threats include drainage of sensitive areas.   It was last recorded in October 2013, at Woodwalton Fen in Huntingdonshire.
In Europe, it is recorded only rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia and Sweden.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being data deficient.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being rare and threatened.    Scarcity of records may be due, in part, to its preference for comparatively inaccessible, boggy locations.

 

Inocybe stellatospora  (Peck) Massee

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1070
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 107 unique geo-referenced sites (1070 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed as near threatened.
In Britain occurrence of the species is patchy outside of the southeastern English counties of Hampshire, Kent, Surrey and Sussex.  In England it appears to thin out significantly further north.   However, there are periodic records from parts of the Scottish lowlands, most notably in Invernesshire and Easter Ross.   There are very sparse records from Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands, mainly in association with Fagus and Quercus.   It is found occasionally with conifers.   With infrequent exceptions it appears to favour altitudes of less than 200m.   It was last recorded in October 2016 at Chalfont St. Giles, in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe the species is encountered with more frequency.   It is recorded in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain.    In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being fairly common but vulnerable.   In Denmark and Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Inocybe subcarpta   Kühner & Boursier
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A fairly small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is recorded infrequently, especially so in England.   Occurrence is mainly restricted to the Scottish Highlands, at altitudes greater than 250m.   There have been occasional collections from English lowland heaths, but most records stem from Aberdeenshire and Invernesshire, extending as far north as Caithness.   It grows on soil and is generally found in coniferous plantations and on moorlands, in association mainly with Pinus sylvestris, less commonly with Picea and occasionally with Betula.   It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in September 2016, at Swinsty Reservoir in Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely, or very rarely, in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being generally rare and threatened.  In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Inocybe tabacina   Furrer-Ziogas
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 170
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 17 unique geo-referenced sites (170 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species is rarely recorded.   In England, collections have been obtained from areas as widely separated as Cornwall, Sussex and Yorkshire.   There are also occasional records from Scottish and Welsh lowlands.    It grows on soil, in woodlands, in association with broadleaf trees including Betula, Fagus and Quercus and less frequently with conifers including Pinus and Pseudotsuga.   With rare exceptions it does not occur at altitudes greater than 200m.   It is highly toxic.   Reasons for the paucity of records remain unclear.   It was most recently recorded in August 2015 at Bolton Abbey in Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently or rarely in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Slovenia and Sweden.   In Norway it is Red Data listed, though as being of least concern.

 
Inocybe tenebrosa  Quél.  

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 180
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 18 unique geo-referenced sites (180 mature individuals).   A small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species is rarely recorded and with the exception of an isolated collection in Invernesshire in 1960, records thus far have been restricted to more southern English counties, chiefly Kent and Oxfordshire.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands, generally in mycorrhizal association with Fagus sylvatica, less frequently with other broadleaf trees including Quercus and Tilia.   It has sometimes been recorded as I. atripes.   It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.  The species is readily distinguished in the field on account of the blackish discolouration that develops in the lower part of the stipe.   It is highly toxic.   Reasons for the paucity of records are unclear.   It was last recorded since August 2009 in Mereworth Woods in Kent and there must be concerns about its continued existence in Britain.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or very rarely in France, Germany, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and southern Sweden.  It is Red Data listed in the Czech Republic as being data deficient and in both The Netherlands and Switzerland it is Red Data listed as rare and either endangered or critically endangered.   It is also Red Data listed in Denmark.

 

Inocybe vaccina  Kühner  
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 70                                                                               
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, though close to being critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded at a few restricted sites in the south of England.   Isolated collections have been made in Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire, Kent, Surrey and Wiltshire.   It has not been recorded further north, nor is it occuring in Scotland or Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands where it appears to be in mycorrhizal association with several broadleaf and coniferous trees.   According to literature it is most commonly associated with Picea.   It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.  It is highly toxic.   It was most recently recorded in September 2015 in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire.
In Europe, it is recorded very rarely in France, Germany, Slovenia and Spain.   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as extremely rare and critically endangered, found at only one location since 1990.

 

Inocybe vulpinella   Bruyl.
Previous assessment: 1992: VU;  2006: VU D2;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered and perhaps close to being critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded.   In England there are only two records to date, at Braunton Burrows in Devon and at Ross Links in Northumberland.   The bulk of the sparse collections have been made in coastal locations in Wales.    It grows in sandy soil and is restricted to fixed dune grasslands and dune slacks, almost exclusively in mycorrhizal association with Salix repens.   It is found at altitudes rarely exceeding 10m.   It is highly toxic.   Principal threats include inappropriate dune management, coastal erosion and rising sea levels.   It has not been recorded since November 2011, at Aberffraw on Anglesey.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as generally rare and vulnerable.   It is Red Data listed in Denmark, though as being of least concern.

 

Inocybe xanthomelas   Boursier & Kühner   
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very infrequently.   In England, collections stem mainly from southern counties, most notably Somerset, but also Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   Ocasionally it is recorded in counties as far north as Yorkshire.   It occurs to a limited extent in Scottish lowlands.   CATE2 holds a single record from Pembrokeshire in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mainly broadleaf woodlands where it is chiefly associated with Betula and Fagus, less often with other broadleaf trees and very occasionally with conifers.   It is found at altitudes rarely exceeeding 150m.   It is highly toxic.   It has been DNA sequenced.   It was most recently recorded in October 2015 at Orielton Field Centre in Pembrokeshire.
In Europe, it has been recorded rarely in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Norway and Slovakia.   Otherwise there is little information about its frequency or distribution.

 

Leucopaxillus gentianeus   (Quél.) Kotl.

Previous assessment: 1992: rare;  2006: VU D2
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, bordering on critically so.
In Britain, the species appears to be restricted almost entirely to the southeastern counties of England and it is probably thermophilous.   The largest proportion of extant records stem from Kent and Surrey with very occasional collections in Devon and Dorset.   It grows on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, parks and cemeteries, mainly in mycorrhizal association with Fagus sylvatica, less frequently with other trees.  It has not been recorded at altitudes in excess of 100m.    In the past it has sometimes been erroneously recorded as L. amarus sensu NCL (1960).   It has not, however, been recorded since November 2010 when it was last found in Norbury Park, Surrey.
In Europe, it is recorded occasionally in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Spain.   It receives little comment.

 

Leucopaxillus paradoxus   (Costantin & L.M. Dufour) Boursier
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very sparsely recorded.   It has been found at a few isolated locations in the south of England as far north as Carleton Forehoe in Norfolk.   It grows on soil in such varied habitats as broadleaf woodlands, coastal scrub, dune grassland, a cemetery and a roadside verge.  It appears to have no specific mycorrhizal associations and has been found generally at lowland altitudes of less than 50m.    It was last recorded in January 2009 at Sidmouth in south Devon.
In Europe, it is recorded in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Slovakia and Spain.   It is Red Listed as endangered in Sweden and as data deficient in the Czech Republic.   It has been identified only very recently in The Netherlands.

 

 

Leucopaxillus rhodoleucus   (Sacc.) Kühner

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A small scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, bordering on critically so.
In Britain, this non-indigenous species has been most frequently recorded in the Dawyck Botanic Garden in Peeblesshire, Scotland.   Elsewhere there are very sparse records from Hampshire, Kent, Surrey and Sussex in the south of England and an isolated record in 2001 from Herefordshire.   It grows on soil, in association with several coniferous tree species including Chamaecyparis and Metasequoia.   It is also associated with the green olive tree, Phillyrea.    It is generally confined to ornamental parks and gardens, but is occasionally encountered in fixed dune grasslands in association with Ulmus macrocarpa.   It is restricted to lowlands at altitudes rarely exceeding 250m.  It was last recorded as Dawyck in September 2015.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and fairly frequently in southern Sweden.

 

Marasmius anomalus   Peck
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment: VU D1
Mature individuals: 260
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 26 unique geo-referenced sites (260 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, a majority of records stem from the western and southwestern coasts of southern England and Wales.   The farthest north the species has been recorded is Anglesey.   It is not known from Scotland.   The species is mainly littoral, occurring in fixed dune grasslands and coastal scrub, but it can also be encountered in grassy places that are distant from the coast, at altitudes up to 100m.   It occurs on both living and dead herbaceous material of Ammophila arenaria and various other plants.   It was most recently recorded at Lligwy on Anglesey in November 2013.
In Europe, it is recorded in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as moderately threatened.   It is also Red Data listed in Norway though of least concern.

 

 

Marasmius bulliardii   Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 860
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 86 unique geo-referenced sites (860 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, occurrence is fairly widespread but is largely confined to the southern counties of England, notably Surrey.   It has been found very rarely in areas of Scotland as far north as the Outer Hebrides,  and infrequently in Wales.    It grows on woody litter, in association with broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus, less frequently Quercus and Fraxinus.   It is a species of lowlands, very rarely found at altitudes greater than 200m.   It was last recorded in October 2015  near Princes Risborough in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy and Spain.   In Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Marasmius buxi   Fr.
Previous assessment: 1992: rare; 2006: VUD2;
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small, threatened population (Criterion D) assessed currently as CR D.
In Britain, the species is rarely recorded.   Records are restricted to a handful of sites in the south of England, extending no further north than Berkshire.   It occurs more or less exclusively on fallen leaves of Buxus sempervirens, although there is an isolated record where it was allegedly identified fruiting on dead leaves of Salix.   It has not been found at altitudes greater than 150m.   It was last recorded in Norbury Park, Surrey, in March 2006, which must be of cause for concern.
In Europe, the species seems to have attracted little interest.   We can find only that it is recorded in France, Germany and Spain.

 


 

Marasmius limosus   Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 380
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 38 unique geo-referenced sites (380 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the limited records of the species are mainly restricted to the southern and midland counties of England.   In Scotland it occurs occasionally as far north as Sutherland.   There is a scattering of collections from Wales.   It is largely confined to wetlands, where it is found growing on fallen vegetation of Phragmites australis and, less frequently, Juncus effusus.   It is more or less restricted to altitudes from sea level up to 100m.   It was most recently recorded in September 2015 at Clayhanger Common in Staffordshire.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland and Spain.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed, though categorised as being of least concern.   In Germany it is listed as being rare and in Switzerland it is Red Data listed as being near threatened.

 

Mycena aciculata   (A.H. Sm.) Desjardin & E. Horak
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 560
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 56 unique geo-referenced sites (560 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as being vulnerable.
In Britain it is recorded in scattered locations.   In England it occurs occasionally from Kent and Sussex on the south coast, as far north as North Yorkshire.   Similarly there are occasional records from Scotland and wales.    It occurs on litter in mixed woodlands, both broadleaf and coniferous, often on decomposing pine cones.   It is most commonly found at lowland altitudes not exceeding 200m.   It was last recorded in October 2016 at Keighley in Yorkshire.   It may also be overlooked and therefore may be somewhat data deficient.
In Europe the spcies is recorded periodically in Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia and Spain.   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as being extremely rare and seriously threatened, with only one known location.   It is also Red Data listed in Poland as rare.   In the Czech Republic is considered to be data deficient.

 

 

Mycena alphitophora   (Berk.) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as being data deficient.
In Britain, the species is encountered very infrequently and has been found in England only at scattered sites from Dorset as far north as midwest Yorkshire.   It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It occurs on leaf litter, mainly in association with Salix, but also less frequently with Fagus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 150m.   It was last recorded at Chinnor Hill, in Oxfordshire, in October 2012.   We consider that it has probably been overlooked.
In Europe, it is recorded in France.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being of moderate rarity but currently not threatened.   In the Czech Republic it is Red Listed as being data deficient. Otherwise we can detect little interest in the species

 

 

Mycena aurantiomarginata   (Fr.) Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  270
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 27 unique geo-referenced sites (270 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded chiefly in the southern and midland counties of England, but it has also been encountered as far north as Abernethy in the Scottish Highlands.  It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on litter, both broadleaf and coniferous, in various habitats including woodlands, parks, gardens and cemeteries.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes exceeding 200m.   It is comparatively easy to identify in the field by the distinctive golden edging to the cap.  It was last recorded in October 2011 at Cropston Reservoir in Leicestershire.
In Europe, it is recorded in France, Italy and probably in most other countries though not specifically mentioned because it is considered fairly common.

 

 

 

Mycena belliarum   (Johnst.) P.D. Orton

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80  mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been recorded only rarely and existing collections have been restricted, more or less, to three counties of eastern England - Huntingdonshire, Norfolk and Suffolk.   Occurrence is restricted to the dead and dying remains of Phragmites australis, in fenlands, at altitudes generally less than 20m.   It was, however, most recently recorded in November 2016 in Coldstream Country Park, Hirsel, in Berwickshire.   This, significantly, is the location where the species was first found, 180 years ago, named after Elizabeth Bell who discovered it.   The lack of recent records may be mainly attributable both to the inaccessible reedbeds in which it grows and to its small size.
In Europe, it occurs in similarly inaccessible locations and is recorded very infrequently, probably for similar reasons.   It has been found in the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany and Hungary.

 

Mycena chlorantha   (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals:  780
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 78 unique geo-referenced sites (780 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species is most frequently recorded in East Anglia, in coastal, or near-coastal locations.   There are some scattered records from the southwest of England including Cornwall, Devon and Dorset.    In Scotland it has been recorded occasionally on coastal links as far north as Aberdeenshire.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   Most records have been collected at altitudes close to sea level.   However, the species has also been found at a distance from coasts, at altitudes as high as 150m., in association with conifers, so its precise ecological requirements may be unclear.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely, in association with Ammophila and some other species, in dune grasslands, in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Latvia, Norway, southern Sweden.   It is Red Data listed as vulnerable in The Netherlands and in Poland.

 

 

Mycena citrinomarginata   Gillet

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 780
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 78 unique geo-referenced sites (780 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently, but at widely diverse locations.   In England it has been found from Hampshire on the south coast, as far north as west Lancashire.   It occurs in Scotland and in Wales, though with still less frequency.   It is found in in litter and grassy soil, in mixed woodlands, scrub, parks and gardens, though with no particular associations, at altitudes up to 250m.   It was most recently recorded in September 2015 on the Whitmuir Estate at Selkirk in Scotland.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently in the Czech Republic, France, Greece and Italy,   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as threatened.   It is also Red Data listed in Denmark, Germany and Norway, though in these countries it is considered to be of least concern.   Elsewhere it seems to have received little attention, or perhaps been overlooked through confusion with more common Mycena species.

 

Mycena coccinea   Quél.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the limited number of records is mainly concentrated in the south and midlands of England.   A few records have been obtained from the Scottish lowlands, but there are no extant records from Wales.   The species is found growing on the litter of both broadleaf and coniferous trees, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, at altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It was last recorded in October 2015 at Tophill Low in southeast Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Norway, Slovakia and Sweden.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.

 


Mycena corynephora   Maas Geest.   

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1180
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 118 unique geo-referenced sites (1180 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as near threatened.
In Britain, occurrence of the species is fairly well distributed through the more southerly counties of England, mainly in Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire, thinning appreciably northwards.   Scattered records stem from the southern lowlands of Scotland and from Wales.   It is found in mixed woodlands, generally arising from the living bark of a range of broadleaf trees, chiefly Alnus, Fagus and Quercus.   It is restricted to lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It was most recently recorded near Seaton in South Devon, in October 2016.   Although the records of the species take it just outside the Red Data listing range, we have erred on the side of caution and categorised it as being vulnerable
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Slovakia and Spain.   It may be regarded as fairly common though under-reported and is perhaps frequently confused with other small, bark-infesting white fungi.   In The Netherlands it appears to be very rare, however, with only one known location in the east of the country, but it has not been Red Data listed.

 

Mycena diosma   Krieglst. & Schwöbel
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 590
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 59 unique geo-referenced sites (590 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded in widely disparate locations from the Isle of Wight in the English Channel, as far north as Ullapool in Wester Ross in Scotland.   A large proportion of records stem from Buckinghamshire and Surrey in southern England.   It grows on the litter of broadleaf trees, favouring Fagus, in mixed woodlands and parks.   Very occasionally it is found in association with coniferous litter.   It is a species of lowlands, very rarely found at altitudes exceeding 250m.   It was most recently recorded in October 2015 on the Isle of Wight.
In Europe, occurence appears to be uneven and patchy.   It is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, but occurs more frequently in Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia and Sweden.   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as being quite rare but is currently not threatened.  In Norway it is listed as being very rare, with only a single confirmed record.   It has been suggested that in Europe it may also be confused with M. pura.
Mycena epipterygioides   A. Pearson

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 420
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 42 unique geo-referenced sites (420 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, there are sparse records of the species chiefly stemming from the southern counties of England, predominantly in Surrey and at lower frequency in Wiltshire.   There are isolated records from Scotland and Wales.   It grows on the litter of both broadleaf and coniferous trees, in mixed woodlands, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   Despite its preference for more southerly latitudes, it was most recently recorded at Langass in the outer Hebrides in October 2013.
In Europe, it is recorded in France and The Netherlands, but otherwise seems to have attracted very little interest.

 

Mycena erubescens   Höhn.  
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 820
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 82 unique geo-referenced sites (820 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records are mainly concentrated in the most southerly counties of England, a majority coming from Cornwall, followed by Hampshire, Somerset and Wiltshire.   A comparatively sparse number of records arise further north.   A few records come from the Scottish lowlands as far north as Sutherland.   There are currently no records from Wales.   It occurs on both living and dead bark of broadleaf trees, chiefly Quercus, followed by Alnus and Fagus.   CATE2 holds one questionable record collected on a fallen branch of Picea.   It is found in mixed woodlands, in lowland areas, at altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It was most recently recorded in December 2015 at Tyntesfield in Somerset.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, southern parts of Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as quite rare and vulnerable.

 

 

Mycena latifolia   (Peck) A.H. Sm.

Previous assessment: 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, very sparse records have been obtained from a number of English counties, most notably Kent, Somerset and Surrey.   The range extends as far north as midwest Yorkshire.   There are currently only two records on CATE2 from Scottish lowlands and a single record from Wales.   It is found growing on litter, in various habitats including mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, mainly associated with grasses but also with Betula and Pinus.   It is a species of lowlands rarely found at altitudes exceeding 200m.   It was most recently recorded in November 2016 at High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe, it is recorded very rarely in France and Latvia.   It is presumed to occur in Finland.   In Germany it is listed as very rare.   In Norway it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   It is also Red Data listed in Spain, as threatened, in Poland as endangered (dying) and in both The Netherlands and Switzerland as being critically endangered.   It is included in the Danish Red Data list though currently regarded as being data deficient.

 

Mycena maculata  P. Karst.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 810
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 81 unique geo-referenced sites (810 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the largest concentration of records stems from the southern counties of England, extending from Kent to Dorset.   Further north, records are more scattered as far as Durham.   In Scotland it occurs infrequently.   It has not yet been recorded in Wales.    It is found on rotting wood and litter, chiefly in broadleaf woodlands with Fagus, less frequently with other broadleaf trees and very occasionally on coniferous wood.   It is a species mainly confined to lowlands, at altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   It was last recorded in October 2016 at Kidlwick in Yorkshire.
In Europe the species is recorded with widely varying frequency, from being notably rare to fairly widespread, in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare and vulnerable.

 

Mycena megaspora  Kauffman

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 720
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 72 unique geo-referenced sites (720 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the main concentration of records comes from the southeastern counties of England, notably, Hampshire, Kent and Surrey.   Occurrence extends west as far as Cornwall and north to Yorkshire, though with considerably less frequency.   There are very occasional records from Scotland as far north as Caithness and from Wales.    It is found on soil, often favouring firesites, in a wide variety of habitats from mixed woodlands, to moorland and occasionally urban areas.   It is associated mainly with Calluna.   With few exceptions it is a species of lowlands, rarely occuring at altitudes above 200m.   It was last recorded in October 2016 on Strensall Common in Yorkshire.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden.   In The Netherlands and in Poland it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.

 

 

Mycena meliigena   (Berk. & Cooke) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 370
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 37 unique geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the sparse number of records stem almost entirely from Cornwall, with a handful coming from further north, as far as Sutherland in Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It is found in mixed woodlands and parks, growing on the trunks of living trees, favouring Alnus and Salix.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes exceeding 150m.   It was last recorded in September 2016 near Stockport in Cheshire.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently.   It is described as being widely distributed in southern Norway though uncommon and is Red Data listed of least concern.  It is described as rare in Hungary.   It occurs a little more frequently in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.

 

 

Mycena mirata   (Peck) Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1050
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 105 unique geo-referenced sites (1050 mature individuals).   A moderate population (Criterion D) assessed currently as near threatened.
In Britain, the species is well distributed.   In England it has been recorded from Cornwall in the southwest, to northeast Yorkshire.   The bulk of records have come from Yorkshire.   In Scotland very sparse records have been obtained from as far north as Caithness.   A handful have come from Wales.   It occurs in mixed woodlands, chiefly on woody litter of broadleaf trees, most notably Fagus and Quercus.   Very isolated records have been obtained from the wood of conifers.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes exceeding 150m.   It was most recently recorded in July 2016 at Bolton Abbey in midwest Yorkshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden.

 

Mycena mucor   (Batsch) Quél.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 740
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 74 unique geo-referenced sites (740 mature individuals).   A moderately small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, a limited number of records stems chiefly from the more southerly counties of England, including most notably Cornwall, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Somerset and Wiltshire.   Isolated collections have been made in the Scottish lowlands and from Wales.   It occurs in mixed woodlands, on litter associated with various broadleaf trees, most notably Quercus, followed by Fagus.   It is a species of lowlands, infrequently found at altitudes greater than 100m.   It was most recently recorded in December 2016 at Farley Mount in north Hampshire.
In Europe, it is recorded occasionally in the more southerly parts of Norway and in Sweden.   It is also noted as being found in the Czech Republic, France, Poland, Russia and Slovakia.    It is presumed to occur in Finland.  In Denmark it is Red Data listed though as being of least concern.   However, in The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare and endangered.  

 

 

Mycena pearsoniana   Dennis ex Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 790
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 79 unique geo-referenced sites (790 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records occur mainly in the southern counties of England, most notably Devon, Gloucestershire, Hampshire and Surrey, but they extend as far north as West Lancashire.   In Scotland it is found less frequently at scattered locations as far north as Westerness.   There are isolated records from Wales.    It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, in association with a range of both broadleaf and coniferous trees, most commonly with Pinus and Picea.  It has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It can be mistaken readily for M. kuehneriana.   It has attracted attention not least because it displays bioluminescence.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany and more southerly parts of Norway.   In The Netherlands, however, it is noted to be fairly common.   By contrast it is Red Data listed as very rare in both Germany and Switzerland.

 

Mycena picta   (Fr.) Harmaja
Previous assessment: 1992: Ex; 2006: VU D2;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
In Britain the species has been very rarely recorded.   CATE2 holds 6 records, the earliest being from 1993.   Most stem from the southeast of England, in Hampshire, Surrey and Sussex.   There are no records from Scotland.   In Wales, a single record is known from Pembrokeshire.   It occurs on rotted wood and woody litter in woodlands, mainly associated with Fagus and Quercus.   With one exception it has not been found at altitudes greater than 100m.   It was most recently recorded near Hundleton in Pembrokeshire, in August 2012.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or with extreme rarity in, Finland, France, Germany, more southerly parts of Norway, Poland, Russia and Slovakia.   In the Czech Republic it is Red Data listed as being data deficient.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare and endangered and in Denmark it is Red Data listed as rare and near threatened.

 

Mycena pterigena   (Fr.) P. Kumm.

Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 520
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 52 unique geo-referenced sites (520 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain it is recorded in widely diverse locations from Kent and Surrey in the south of England, to Sutherland in the north of Scotland.   Occasional records stem from Wales.   It grows on dead and dying herbaceous species of Pteridophyta, chiefly Pteridium aquilinum but also, less frequently, on Dryopteris.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 200m.   It was most recently recorded in November 2016 at Croft Castle in Herefordshire.
In Europe the species is recorded either fairly or very infrequently in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Russia, Spain and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as rare and endangered.

 

Mycena pullata  Sacc.

Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment: DD
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as being data deficient, but possibly extinct.
In Britain collections of the species have been extremely sparse during the period of the current assessment.   Earlier in the 20th century there was a somewhat more frequent incidence of recording.    Since 1967 it has only been recorded in four scattered locations - Cornwall, Hampshire, Norfolk and Yorkshire.   It grows on litter and the only clear indication of a tree association seems to be with Quercus.   It has not been recorded since September 2004, at Bourley in Hampshire.   There is also no taxonomic opinion available.
In Europe there are isolated records from Germany.   Otherwise the position is unclear.

 

 

Mycena renati   Quél.

Previous assessment: 1992: rare; 2006: VU D2;
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, close to being critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded.   CATE2 holds 9 records, the earliest being from 1974.   Most of these stem from Sussex and Somerset.    There are isolated records from further north as far as Staffordshire.   There are no records from Scotland or Wales.   It occurs on rotted wood and woody litter, in broadleaf woodlands where it is associated with trees including Corylus, Fagus and Fraxinus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 100m.   It was most recently recorded in November 2015 at Wellington Hill in Somerset.
In Europe, it is recorded uncommonly in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, more southerly parts of Norway and Sweden, Russia, Slovakia and northern Spain.   In Bulgaria it is described as widespread and common.   In Poland, by contrast, it is Red Data listed as being vulnerable.  In The Netherlands it has not been recorded since 1987 and is potentially extinct.

 

Mycena rhenana   Maas Geest. & Winterh.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, bordering on critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded.   CATE2 holds 7 records, the earliest being from 2000.   Most of these stem from the southern counties of England.    There are no records from Scotland.   There is an isolated record from Carmarthenshire in Wales.  It occurs in alder and willow carrs, on the fallen cones of Alnus spp.   It was most recently recorded in October 2013 at Yeovil in Somerset.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or very rarely in France and Germany.  It is found in Norway, though not in Sweden.   In The Netherlands, though not Red Data listed, the species is considered extremely rare, found only at a few widely scattered locations.

 

 

Mycena rosella  (Fr.) P. Kumm.

Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 520
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 52 unique geo-referenced sites (520 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is recorded in scattered locations in England from Devon on the south coast, to Yorkshire.   It is found more frequently in Scotland where its chief stronghold is the Abernethy Forest in Invernesshire.   It has been recorded as far north as Caithness.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on litter in coniferous woods and plantations mainly in association with woody and needle debris of Picea.   It occurs at altitudes up to 350m.   It was most recently recorded in December 2016 at Farley Mount in Hampshire.   It has been subject to DNA profiling.
In Europe it is found mainly in upland coniferous forests in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden.

 

 

 

Mycena rubromarginata

Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 810
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 81 unique geo-referenced sites (810 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records of the species are widely scattered.   In England they extend from Cornwall in the far southwest, to north Yorkshire.   There is a similar story in Scotland,  where records extend from the borders, to Wester Ross.    There are occasional records from Wales.   It grows on litter in a similarly wide range of locations from coniferous woodlands, to coastal scrub and fixed dune grasslands.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely occuring at altitudes greater than 200m.   The comparative paucity of UK records is not readily understood, but it may sometimes be overlooked, since without close inspection it can appear as another common whitish-capped Mycena.   It was last recorded in October 2016 at Boscombe Down in Wiltshire.
In Europe the species is found fairly commonly in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Spain and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is considered to be quite rare though not Red Data listed.

 

Mycena septentrionalis   Maas Geest.

Previous assessment: 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, perhaps now critically endangered.
In Britain, the species has been very rarely recorded.   CATE2 holds 9 records, the earliest being from 1988.   Most of these stem from the Scottish Highlands, though there are isolated records from further south as far as Gloucestershire.   There are no records from Wales.   It occurs on rotted wood and woody litter, mainly in coniferous woodlands where it is associated with Pinus and Picea.   In Gloucestershire it has allegedly been recorded on wood of broadleaf trees.   It is a species that favours uplands, rarely found at altitudes below 250m.   It has not been recorded since October 2008, at Rothiemurchus in Invernesshire.
In Europe, it is recorded uncommonly in the Czech Republic, France, Hungary and Norway.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.   Elsewhere in Europe the species seems to have attracted little interest.

 

Mycena seynii   Quél.
Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 22 unique geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently and is more or less restricted in distribution to the southernmost counties of England.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   In Wales only a single record is known, from Gwent.   It occurs on the fallen cones, chiefly of Pinus radiata but also allegedly on those of other Pinus species, in woodlands, parks and ornamental gardens.   Although associated with conifers it appears to be restricted to lowland altitudes, very rarely exceeding 100m.   It was last recorded in November 2016 on an island in Poole Harbour, Dorset.
In Europe, it is recorded in Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Russia and Spain.   Otherwise it seems to have attracted little attention.

 

Mycena silvae-nigrae   Maas Geest. & Schwöbel  

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently.   In England a limited number of collections have been made, from Devon and as far north as Yorkshire.   The majority of British records stem from Scotland, chiefly from the montane regions of Aberdeenshire and Invernesshire.    There are no records from Wales.   It occurs mainly in coniferous plantations, on woody litter and rotting wood.   It is found mainly at altitudes exceeding 200m. but it has also been recorded, occasionally, at lower altitudes.   There is one doubtful record from 1991, on a conifer stump at Whiteford Burrows in Gwent.   It was most recently recorded, slightly out of the period of this assessment, in March 2017 at Dunbar in East Lothian.
In Europe, it is largely but not exclusively montane in distribution.   It is recorded either rarely or infrequently in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden.   It is comparatively common in south-east Norway and is widespread in Russia.

 

Mycena smithiana   Kühner
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 780
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 78 unique geo-referenced sites (780 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded infrequently though it is widespread in its distribution.    In England the bulk of records have been obtained in the southern counties, but it has been found as far west as Herefordshire and as far north as northeast Yorkshire.   Very occasional records have been collected in lowland areas of Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs in broadleaf woodlands, almost entirely on litter, usually on the fallen leaves of Quercus, very rarely with other tree species.   It is restricted to lowlands, at altitudes hardly ever exceeding 200m.   It was last recorded in November 2016 at Consall in Staffordshire.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Norway, Poland and Spain.  In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as vulnerable and in Denmark it is noted as being of least concern.

 

Mycena urania   (Fr.) Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 30
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 3 unique geo-referenced sites (30 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the only records for the species have come from the Liverpool area of Lancashire and from Abernethy Forest, in Invernesshire in Scotland.   The single Lancashire record may be doubtful.   It grows on coniferous litter in pine forests and was last recorded in Abernethy Forest in October 2008.  It appears to be restricted largely to montane regions.    It may also be confused with Mycena metata.   These elements may contribute to the paucity of UK records.   Although we have described the species as being data deficient, it is also considered to be extremely rare world-wide.
In Europe it has been recorded rarely in montane ares of the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden.   It is potentially Red Data listed in Denmark, but assigned to no specific category.

 

 

Mycena zephirus   (Fr.) P. Kumm.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, there are very sparse records of the species, largely confined to the southern English counties of Gloucestershire and Wiltshire.   There are isolated records in CATE2 from Scotland, as far north as Caithness and from Wales.   It is found chiefly in coniferous plantations, most commonly on litter of Pinus sylvestris, less frequently in association with other Pinus species and with Cedrus, Larix and Picea.   It appears to be restricted to lowlands, rarely found at altitudes exceeding 100m.   It has not been recorded since November 2011, when it was found at Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire.
In Europe, it is recorded in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is described as being widely distributed in Norway.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being very rare and sensitive, known only from three or four sites.  

 

Russula acetolens   Rauschert

Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 400
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 40 unique geo-referenced sites (400 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records of the species have been obtained chiefly from southern counties of England, most notably in Hampshire and Buckinghamshire.   Sparse records have been obtained from Scotland, as far north as Caithness and Sutherland.   There is an isolated record from Wales, in Gwent.   It is found growing on soil in broadleaf woodlands and it appears to be mycorrhizal with broadleaf trees, predominantly with Quercus, but also to a lesser extent with Fagus.   It is essentially a species of lowlands, rarely encountered at altitudes above 150m.   It was most recently recorded in November 2015 in Sutherland.   Threats are unclear.
In Europe, the species is reported from the Czech Republic, rarely from the Central Massif of France, Germany, Italy and the Navarre region of Spain.   It appears generally to be of scattered distribution and infrequent in occurence.

 

Russula acrifolia   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 470
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 47 unique geo-referenced sites (470 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records for the species stem predominantly from Gloucestershire and to a lesser extent other counties in the south of England, from Devon to Kent.   Collections extend north into south Lancashire.   In Scotland it occurs very infrequently as far north as the Hebrides.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs on soil, generally in mixed and broadleaf woodlands and it appears to be mycorrhizal chiefly with Quercus and Fagus.   It is occasionally recorded in association with coniferous trees.  It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes in excess of 150m. and it is probably thermophilic.   It was most recently recorded in South Devon in 2015.
In Europe, it has been recorded at scattered locations in The Netherlands where it is Red Data listed.  It occurs rather more frequently though it is still uncommon or infrequent in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Italy, Slovenia and Sweden.


 

Russula alnetorum   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 510
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 51 unique geo-referenced sites (510 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, distribution of the species is chiefly restricted to the southern counties of England.   Occasionally it is recorded in Scotland and Wales.     It occurs on soil, almost entirely in broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with Alnus glutinosa.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely encountered at altitudes in excess of 100m.   Principal threats would appear to be habitat removal with the clearance or drainage of unproductive wetland alder and willow carrs.   It was most recently recorded at several locations in 2015.
In Europe, it is distributed throughout the central region, generally uncommon and always in mycorrhizal association with alders.   It has been Red Data listed in both the Czech Republic and Denmark as being near threatened.   It is also recorded infrequently in Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and Poland.

 

Russula alutacea   (Fr.) Fr.

Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 710
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 71 unique geo-referenced sites (710 mature individuals).   A comparatively small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is fairly well distributed with the greater concentration of records stemming from the more southerly counties as far north as Lincolnshire, beyond which occurrence tends to thin out.   One of the most prolific areas of fruiting is Norfolk.   There is a small crop of records from Invernesshire in Scotland and a few from Wales.   It is found on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, almost wholly in mycorrhizal association with Fagus.   It was most recently recorded in October 2016 at Bracketts Coppice in Dorset.   It is not generally considered to be subject to any kind of threat.   It is, however, a sought-after edible species, which may carry a risk from over-collection.
In Europe the species is recorded in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Russia, Spain and Sweden.  The risk of over-collection applies similarly.

 


Russula amarissima   Romagn. & E.-J. Gilbert

Previous assessment: 1992: rare;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, with a single exception in Yorkshire in 2009, records for the species are restricted to a few sites in the extreme south of England, where it is apparently on the most northerly limit of its European range.   It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It occurs on soil in mycorrhizal association with broadleaf trees including Fagus and Quercus and it is almost entirely restricted to lowlands at altitudes below 100m.   It appears to be thermophilous.   Records have been very infrequent and the species has not been recorded since the 2009 Yorkshire collection.
In Europe, the species is generally infrequent or rare.   It has been recorded in Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy and Slovakia.

 

Russula amethystina   Quél.
Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain records for this species stem almost entirely from the Scottish Highlands.   There are two exceptions, of collections made in East Sussex.   It is found on soil, in mycorrhizal association with Pinus sylvestris, less commonly with other coniferous trees.   There is an isolated CATE2 record with Betula.   It is generally encountered at altitudes in excess of 150m.    Reasons for scarcity are unclear.   It was last recorded in 2012 at Abernethy in Invernesshire.  
In northern Europe it is regarded as very rare.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as extremely rare and critically endangered.   It is also Red Data listed, though as being of least concern in Sweden and it is similarly listed in Bulgaria.   It is recorded occasionally, or rarely, in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy and Latvia.

 


 

Russula amoenoides   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   A  very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, records for this species are very sparse and have been obtained exclusively in Buckinghamshire and Middlesex, in the south of England.   It occurs on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands and it appears to form mycorrhizal associations exclusively with Quercus.   It is thus far confined to lowland regions, below 200m.    It was last recorded in August 2015, on Hampstead Heath.   Reasons for the sparsity of records remain unclear.
In Europe there is little available information about distribution or frequency.

 

 

Russula anatina   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain with few exceptions, the very sparse records of the species to date are restricted to the south of England.   CATE2 holds a single record from Westerness in Scotland in 2010, which is also the most recent record and there are no records from Wales.   It is found on soil, in mixed woodlands, in association with broadleaf trees, most notably Quercus, at lowland altitudes below 150m.   Reasons for the paucity of records are not clear, but the species may be under-reported since it is easily confused with other species including R. cyanoxantha and R. pseudointegra.   For this reason we have identified it as being data deficient rather than endangered.
In Europe, it is generally regarded as an edible species.   It is Red Data listed as critically endangered in The Netherlands with only two known locations.   It is also red listed in Switzerland.  It is reported to be infrequent in the Czech Republic, very rare in Germany and in the massif central of France, uncommon in Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovenia and Spain.   It is believed to occur in Finland, but there has been no substantive reporting.

 


 

Russula atroglauca   Einhell.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, very few English records have been obtained and they are widely dispersed from Sussex on the south coast, as far north as Cumberland.   It has not been recorded to date in Scotland or Wales.   It is found on soil, in association with various species of broadleaf trees, including Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea.   It occurs at lowland altitudes up to 180m.   We believe that the paucity of records may, in part, be accounted for by collections having been confused with, in particular, R. parazurea.   It was last recorded in Herefordshire in 2014.
In Europe, the species is recorded from scattered locations in Finland, France, notably the Massif Central, Italy, Norway and from Sweden where it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.   It is described as being very rare in the Czech Republic and Germany.

 

Russula atrorubens   Quél.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the very sparse records of the species are widely scattered from Hampshire on the south coast of England, as far north as the Orkney Islands.   It has also been recorded at two locations in Wales.   It is found on soil, in mycorrhizal association with coniferous trees, most notably Pinus.   It has also been recorded with Salix, though the isolated record is in some doubt.   It occurs at altitudes up to 270m.   It has not, however, been found since 2008 when it was identified in a cemetery at Newport.   Reasons for the paucity of records are unclear, but the species is not particularly distinctive and may perhaps be confused with R.  betularum and R. fragilis.   For this reason we have erred on the side of caution and identified it, for the time being, as being data deficient.   The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.
In Europe, it is recorded throughout much of the continent wherever there are pine trees in boggy areas.   This includes notably Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula aurea   Pers.

Previous assessment: 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 400
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 40 unique geo-referenced sites (400 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded in a wide range of locations, from Cornwall in the southwest of England, to Invernesshire in the Scottish Highlands.   It has been recorded infrequently in Wales.   It occurs on soil in broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with various broadleaf trees, most notably Betula and Fagus.   It is recorded very occasionally with coniferous trees.   It is found at lowland altitudes, rarely exceeding 200m.    The species is probably vulnerable to clearance of birch woodlands.   It is easily recognisable in the field by its orange pileus and yellow gills, though it may possibly be confused with similar-looking species including R. risigalina and R. romelii.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden, where it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.   Although widespread, it is also generally rare and probably at increasing risk from over-picking as one of the more popular and easily-recognisable edible species in continental Europe.

 

Russula azurea   Bres.

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the species has been recorded in England most frequently in the southeastern counties, including Hampshire, Kent and Surrey.   However, its range extends to more northern counties.   In Scotland it has been recorded as far north as Invernesshire.   In Wales, there is an isolated record on CATE2 from Caernarvonshire.   It favours acidic soils, in mycorrhizal association mostly with conifers, very rarely with broadleaf trees including Fagus and Quercus.   It occurs at altitudes up to 250m. though generally at less than 100m.  It was last recorded in 2012 at Loch Fyne in Argyllshire.   Potential threats are unclear.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, Russia, Slovakia and Spain.   It is extremely rare in The Netherlands with one known site.  In Germany it is Red Data listed as being very rare and endangered.  In Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula badia   Quél.

Previous assessment: 1992: VU; 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 290
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 29 unique geo-referenced sites (290 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable and close to being endangered.
In Britain, records of the species are from widely dispersed locations, though the majority of records stem from the Scottish Highlands.   The species has also been recorded occasionally in England in coniferous forest locations in Kent and Somerset.   In Wales it has been recorded in Gwent.   It is found growing on soil, in mycorrhizal association more or less exclusively with Pinus sylvestris.   It occurs at altitudes in excess of 200m. and is probably sensitive to rising emperatures, though it shows no appreciable sign of decline in its upland strongholds.   The most recent record on CATE2 was taken in Perthshire in September 2014.   The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.
In Europe, it is recorded in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia and Slovakia.  In Denmark it is Red Data listed as vulnerable and in Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula barlae   Quél.
Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 350
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 35 unique geo-referenced sites (350 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.

In Britain records stem almost wholly from the southern counties of England, chiefly Kent.   Aside from two isolated Scottish records in CATE2, it occurs no futher north than Warwickshire.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It is found on soil in broadleaf woodlands, chiefly in association with Fagus.   The species may have been regularly overlooked since can be confused readily with R. faginea and especially R. xerampelina.    The species has been subject to DNA profiling.   It was last recorded in October 2013, in Alexandra Park, London.

In Europe it is recorded very rarely in the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia.   It is Red Data listed in Switzerland as endangered.

 

Russula carminipes   J. Blum

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 22 unique geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, records stem more or less exclusively from the most southerly counties of EngIand, extending from Cornwall to Kent.   It has been recorded no further north than Oxfordshire.   It has not been recorded from Scotland or Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands, parks and gardens, in association with a range of broadleaf trees mainly including, though not limited to Fagus and Quercus.   It occurs at lowland altitudes, generally below 100m. and is clearly thermophilous. The most recent record in CATE2 was obtained from Tiverton, in Devon, in 2016.   Principal threats would appear to be removal and management alteration, of habitats.   Of particular concern should be the policies being incorporated increasingly in public parks of spreading woodchip around major trees to deter soil compaction, since this also often changes the soil chemistry.
In Europe, it is recorded infrequently in Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as sensitive, with very few known sites.

 

Russula carpini   R. Girard & Heinem.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, the sparse locations for the species are almost entirely restricted to the southern counties of England.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   There is a single 2010 record from Denbighshire in Wales.   It grows on soil, in mixed woodlands and parks and is increasingly vulnerable both to the loss of mature Carpinus betulus and the limited re-planting of this species with which it is exclusively mycorrhizal.   It occurs at lowland altitudes generally below 100m. and it has not been found above 200m.   Aside from a single record taken in Regents Park, London, in 2015, has not been recorded since 2010 and there are concerns for its continued existence.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Slovakia and Slovenia.   In Sweden it is Red Data listed as being near threatened.   In The Netherlands it is described as being extremely rare but it is not on the Dutch Red Data list. 

 

Russula cavipes   Britzelm.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient
In Britain, records of this species are extremely scarce and fairly widely distributed.   In England there are single records from Norfolk.    A few stem from the Scottish Highlands and from Monmouthshire in Wales.    It occurs on soil in association almost wholly with coniferous trees.   It is found growing at altitudes up to 300m.   It has not been recorded since September 2011, in Perthshire.   Reasons for the sparsity of records are unclear.   There are indications, however, that it may be confused on casual inspection with other species of similar appearance including R. queletii and R. fragilis.   Further assessment is therefore needed.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or very rarely in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

 

Russula cessans   A. Pearson

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 220
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 22 unique geo-referenced sites (220 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, records are sparse though from widely scattered locations.   In England, the largest concentration comes from the south-east, in Kent and Surrey.   Records extend as far north as south Lancashire.   In Scotland records are largely concentrated in Invernesshire, but extend as far north as Caithness.   The species is encountered very occasionally in Wales.   It grows on soil, chiefly in coniferous forests, in mycorrhizal association with Pinus, most commonly P. sylvestris.   It is found at altitudes from sea level up to 400m.   The species may, however, be confused on casual inspection, with more common species including R. aquosa and R. nauseosa.   It was most recently recorded at Ainsdale N.N.R. in November 2014. 
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.

 

Russula cicatricata   Romagn. ex Bon

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 520
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 52 unique geo-referenced sites (520 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded mainly in the midlands and the more southerly counties of England, the greatest concentration of records coming from Buckinghamshire, Gloucestershire and Warwickshire.   In Scotland, it occurs infrequently as far north as Jura in the Hebrides.   In Wales there are occasional records.   It grows on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with several species of broadleaf trees, most notably with Fagus and Quercus.   It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 250m.   One reason for the comparative paucity of records may be that many field workers do not readily recognise the species.   It does not, for example, feature in B. and K. Vol 6.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely in Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany where it is described as very rare, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands and Poland.   In Switzerland it is Red Data listed as endangered.

 

Russula clavipes   Velen.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the very sparse numbers of records stem from widely diverse locations, ranging from Kent in the southeast of England and extending as far north as west Sutherland, in Scotland.   In Wales, the CATE2 database includes only a single record, from Monmouthshire.  It is found on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with Betula.   It occurs at altitudes up to 250m. Reasons for the paucity of records are unclear, although the species may have been regularly misidentified.   It is recognised that R. clavipes can be difficult to determine from other predominantly green capped species, even among experts.
In Europe, it is recorded in the Czech Republic, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovakia.   In both Denmark and Sweden it is Red Data listed, though as being of least concern.

 

 

Russula cremeoavellanea   Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 100
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 10 unique geo-referenced sites (100 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain, the species has been recorded very infrequently at scattered locations from Kent on the south coast of England, as far north as west Sutherland, in Scotland.    It favours damp, acidic soils and appears to be in mycorrhizal association chiefly with Betula, but also possibly with other broadleaf tree species.   It has been found growing at a wide range of altitudes, from approximately sea level up to 400m.   It is likely to be confused, on casual inspection, with other pale yellowish Russula species that grow in association with birch and this may account for the paucity of records.   It was most recently recorded in August 2013 at Malham Tarn N.N.R.   Further investigation of distribution of the species is recommended.
In Europe, it is recorded very rarely, in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Latvia, Norway and Sweden.

 

Russula cuprea   J.E. Lange

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 390
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 39 unique geo-referenced sites (390 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records of the species stem chiefly from the more westerly areas.   In England, distribution extends from the south-western counties of Devon, Gloucestershire and Somerset, as far north as Westmorland.   In Scotland it is encountered very infrequently as far north as West Sutherland.   There are very few records from Wales.      It grows on soil in mixed woodlands, most frequently in mycorrhizal association with Quercus, but occasionally with other species of broadleaf trees, notably Betula, Fagus and Tilia.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely occuring at altitudes greater than 150m.   It was last recorded at Tyntesfield, in Somerset, in October 2014.
In Europe, it is recorded in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sardinia, Slovakia and Spain.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being endangered and in Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula curtipes   F.H. Møller & Jul. Schäff.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 550
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 55 unique geo-referenced sites (550 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, the species has been recorded at a wide range of locations, chiefly in the southernmost counties of England, where it extends, most notably, from Cornwall, to Kent.   Northwards, it occurs with considerably less frequency, as far as Northumberland.   It is recorded occasionally in more southerly counties of Scotland and with less frequency again in Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens, in mycorrhizal association with Fagus, very occasionally with Quercus.  It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes higher than 200m.   It is possible to confuse it with other mild tasting species of similar cap colouration.    It was recorded most recently in September 2014, in Perthshire.
In Europe, it is recorded rarely or very rarely in Denmark, France, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia and in the far south of Sweden.  It is Red Data listed in various countries - in the Czech Republic as being data deficient, in Germany as endangered, in The Netherlands as very rare and seriously threatened, in Poland as rare and in Switzerland as vulnerable.

 


Russula decipiens   (Singer) Bon
Previous assessment: 1992: VU
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 360
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 36 unique geo-referenced sites (360 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable, though it may also be data deficient.
In Britain, occurrence of the species is largely restricted to the southern counties of England, extending from Gloucestershire to Kent.   Very sparse records have been collected from northern England and CATE2 holds a single 1998 record from Invernesshire in Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   The species is found at low altitudes, rarely exceeding 100m. and appears therefore to be thermophilic.   It grows on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, parks and gardens, in mycorrhizal association almost exclusively with Quercus and Fagus.   It was most recently recorded in 2015 in the New Forest, Hampshire.   Reasons for sparsity of records are unclear though it can readily be confused with other frequently occurring Russula species that produce egg-yellow spores and therefore may have been under-recorded.
In Europe it is recorded rarely or very rarely in Finland, France, Italy, The Netherlands where it is generally rare but currently Red Listed as not threatened and Slovakia.   It is Red Data listed as endangered in Denmark and Sweden.  In the Czech Republic and in Germany it is Red Data listed respectively as endangered and severely endangered.

 

Russula emeticicolor   Jul. Schäff.

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as critically endangered.
In Britain the very sparse records of this species are mainly concentrated in Sussex on the south coast.  There are isolated records from southwest Yorkshire.   In Scotland it has been recorded in Peebles.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It is a lowland species that ocurs at altitudes of less than 200m.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with Fagus.   Reasons for the sparsity of records are unclear.   The species can be readily distinguished by a positive sulpho-vanillin reaction that does not occur with other look-alikes such as R. pseudointegra.   It has not been recorded since 2006, at Peebles.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France and Germany, but otherwise seems to receive little attention, or is confused with other similar re-capped species.

 

Russula faginea   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 470
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 47 unique geo-referenced sites (470 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, records are mainly concentrated in the southeast of England, most notably in the counties of Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, Kent and Sussex.    Very sparse records occur further north.  In Scotland it has been recorded very occasionally in lowland habitats.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association mainly with Fagus, but also less commonly with other broadleaf trees, chiefly but not exclusively Quercus.   It is rarely found at altitudes exceeding 150m.   The most recent records on CATE2 stem from October 2015, in Hampshire.
In Europe it is recorded rarely or very rarely in Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is more frequent in beech forests in Spain.   It is suggsted in several of these check-lists that it can be confused readily with similar-looking species including the common R. xerampelina.  It is Red Data listed in Switzerland as vulnerable and in the Czech Republic as data deficient.  In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula font-queri   Singer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain has been very rarely recorded.   Records stem chiefly from Buckinghamshire in England and from Invernesshire in Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs on soil in broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with Betula.   However, the species is similar in appearance to Russula aurantiaca and may, at times, have been mis-identified since the two can only be distinguished, with difficulty, microscopically.  It is also suggested that it can be confused with R. velenovskyi.   It was last recorded in 2010 in Buckinghamshire.   For the time being we feel it reasonable to classify it as endangered.
In Europe it is recorded rarely or very rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, southern Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Slovakia and Spain.  It is Red Data listed in Germany as being extremely rare and in The Netherlands as very rare and endangered, with only four known locations.   It is also Red Data listed in both Denmark, where it was last recorded in 2004 and in Norway.   In Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula fuscorubroides   Bon

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, records are largely restricted to the southern half of England, stemming principally from the Welsh border counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire, but also to a lesser extent from Cornwall, Somerset and Surrey.    There are sparse records from Scotland and from Wales.   It occurs on acidic to neutral soils in mixed and coniferous woodlands, in association with a range of coniferous trees, including but not limited to Picea, Pinus and Tsuga.   It is a species of lowlands, infrequently found at altitudes higher than 200m. and is probably thermophilic.   It may be confused on casual inspection with Russula queletii.   It was last recorded in Pembrokeshire in November 2013.  It has been subject to DNA sequencing.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Latvia and Slovakia.

 

Russula gigasperma   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 180
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 18 unique geo-referenced sites (180 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain records are mainly concentrated in the south of England, notably in Kent, Gloucestershire and Somerset.   In England there are very sparse records from as far north as Northumberland.   There is a single record from Peebles in Scotland and one or two from Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in association with tree species including Corylus, Fagus, Fraxinus and Quercus.   It appears to be a thermophilous species, rarely occuring at altitudes above 200m.   It has not been recorded, however, since 2011 when it was identified on Walton Common in North Somerset.   It is, however, difficult to distinguish in the field from R. cuprea and R. decipiens.   This may have influenced the comparative paucity of records.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden.


 

Russula graveolens   Romell

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1160
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 116 unique geo-referenced sites (1160 mature individuals).   A moderately sized population (Criterion D) assessed currently as near threatened.
In Britain the majority of records stem from the southern counties of England, most notably Buckinghamshire, Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   Occurrence thins out markedly further north.   In Scotland it has been recorded periodically as far north as Caithness.   There are very sparse records from Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands, almost wholly in mycorrhizal association with Quercus, occasionally with Betula and Fagus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 200m.    It was last recorded in October 2016 at Coombe Hill in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe, despite its fishy smell, it is a sought-after edible species.   However, occurrence is not consistent across the continent.   It is found in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia and southern Sweden.   It is considered to be very rare in Germany.  It is Red Data listed as being endangered in Switzerland.

 

Russula helodes   Melzer

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 40
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 4 unique geo-referenced sites (40 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as critically endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded only eight times since the 1970s and most of the records stem from a single nature reserve at Bashall Eaves, in mid-west Yorkshire.   There are single records on the CATE2 database from Aberdeenshire in Scotland and from Gwent (Glamorganshire) in Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands and coniferous plantations.   It is more or less exclusively associated with Picea and Pinus.   Reasons for scarcity of records are unclear.   However, the species is featured in only a few reference books and may possibly have been overlooked or mistaken for other similar red-capped and red-flushed species such as R. sanguinaria.
In Europe it is recorded very rarely at isolated sites in, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Norway, Poland and Slovakia.  In The Netherlands it is considered to be extremely rare at only two known locations.   In the Czech Republic it is Red Data listed as critically endangered, in Denmark as being vulnerable and in Germany as very rare, threatened with extinction.   In Norway it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula illota   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 530
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 53 unique geo-referenced sites (530 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species has been recorded widely in different areas of England, Scotland and Wales though records have been spasmodic and infrequent.   It grows on soil, in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, in association with a range of both broadleaf and coniferous trees including, most frequently, Betula, Fagus and Quercus.   It has been found mainly at lowland altitudes below 100m.   It may, however, be confused with the similar-looking Russula grata (R. laurocerasi) which also posseses an odour of bitter almond.    It was most recently recorded in October 2015 on the Isle of Wight.  
In Europe it is recorded with variable frequency in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Russia.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern, while in The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being very rare and endangered.

 

Russula insignis   Quél.
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 480
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 48 unique geo-referenced sites (480 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species has been recorded infrequently though it appears to be widely distributed.   In England a majority of the records stem from Kent and Sussex and become less frequent northwards.   However, it has also been recorded in some sites in Scotland, most notably Peebles.   It is a species of lowlands, occurring infrequently at altitudes higher than 100m and it is probably thermophilic.   It is found on soil in association mainly with Quercus, occasionally with other broadleaf trees including Tilia and very rarely with conifers.   Many of the British records on CATE2 were originally identified under the synonyms of R. livescens and R. pectinatoides.   Some taxonomists regard these as separate species.   It was recorded most recently in September 2016 in the Forest of Dean.
In Europe it is recorded only rarely in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy Slovakia and Slovenia.   In both The Netherlands and Switzerland it is Red Data listed as being vulnerable.

 

Russula intermedia   P. Karst.

Previous assessment: 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species has been recorded infrequently and records are largely restricted to the English northwestern counties of Cumberland and Westmorland.  A scattering of records stem from the southern counties.   In Scotland very limited records have been obtained from Aberdeenshire and Invernesshire.   It grows on soil in mycorrhizal association with various broadleaf trees, chiefly Betula and Quercus.   Occasionally it appears to be be in association with conifers.   It occurs at a range of altitudes from sea-level to 350m.   The species is not well represented in field guides and therefore may be overlooked or confused with other species by some recorders.   It was last recorded in September 2016 at Beinn Eighe in Wester Ross, Scotland.
In Europe it is recorded infrequently in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary where it is considered vulnerable, Italy, Russia, Slovakia and Sweden.  For reasons that remain unclear it is regarded as extinct in Poland.  It is Red Data listed in Denmark is being not sufficiently evaluated.


Russula laccata   Huijsman

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 25 unique geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered though bordering on vulnerable.
In Britain records of the species appear to be concentrated within a few widely dispersed areas, about which any common factor remains unclear.   The largest proportion of records stems from lowland areas in the south of England, notably Dorset, Hampshire, Kent and Sussex.   A further crop comes from Westmorland.   In the Scottish Highlands there is a notable concentration in montane areas including Cairngorm.   Scottsh records extend as far north as Caithness.   The species has not apparently been recorded in Wales.     It grows on soil, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with species of willow including Salix cinerea, S. herbacea and S. repens which may account for the extreme variations in the locations where it has been found.  Occurrence extends from dune slacks at sea level to montane altitudes in excess of 1000m.   It was most recently recorded on the Isle of Wight in 2015.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway from where its synonym R. norvegica derives and Slovakia.  In Germany it is regarded as being extremely rare and is Red Data listed as endangered.  In Denmark it is also Red Data listed, though of least concern.

 

Russula laeta   Jul. Schäff.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:   EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain records are widely scattered throughout lowland areas.  In England occurrence is mainly limited to the southern counties of Gloucestershire and Wiltshire.   In Scotland the bulk of records come from Peebles and constitute part of the Dawyck Botanic Garden Survey.   Very sparse records stem from Wales.   It grows on soil in woodlands, parks and gardens, in mycorrhizal association with broadleaf trees, almost wholly restricted to Fagus spp. and Quercus spp.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes exceeding 200m.   It was last reported in 2010, at Peebles in Scotland.
In Europe it is recorded very rarely in Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Latvia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed as critically endangered in Belgium and in Germany, as vulnerable in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.   It is also Red Data listed in The Netherlands with only four known sites.

 

Russula langei   Bon

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 270
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 27 unique geo-referenced sites (270 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable, close to being endangered.
In Britain records for the species stem predominantly from the southeastern corner of England in Kent and Sussex.   There are isolated records from further north in England and from Wales.   Occasional records also come from Scottish counties.  It grows on soil in broadleaf woodlands and parklands, in mycorrhizal association chiefly with Fagus sylvatica.   It is found at lowland altitudes that are generally well below 100m.   However, records are patchy and the species was last recorded at Puttenham Common in Surrey, in September 2012.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Slovakia and Slovenia.   Otherwise it is little reported and it may also be confused with R. cyanoxantha.

 

 

Russula lilacea   Quél.

Previous assessment: 1992: VU; 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 230
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 23 unique geo-referenced sites (230 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, records stem almost wholly from the southern counties of England, a majority coming from forest and woodland areas in Gloucestershire.    There is an isolated record from Yorkshire.   In Scotland a very small number of records have been obtained from as far north as the Isle of Skye.     It grows on soil in mixed woodlands and parks, in association mainly with Quercus, less commonly with other broadleaf trees including Betula, Carpinus and Corylus.   It appears to be a thermophilous, lowland species rarely found at altitudes greater than 200m.    It could be confused with R. nitida and R. turci.   It has not been recorded, however, since August 2013 on Skye.
In Europe it is recorded with reasonable frequency in the Czech Republic, otherwise quite rarely in Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Italy, Latvia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed in both Germany and Switzerland as being very rare and endangered and in Denmark as vulnerable.    It is also Red Data listed in Sweden though of least concern.


 Russula maculata   Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 440
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 44 unique geo-referenced sites (440 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain, this fairly distinctive species has been recorded at a scattering of locations in English counties, from Kent and Sussex as far north, though with lower frequency, as Yorkshire.   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   There is an isolated record from Wales.   It grows on soil in broadleaf and mixed woodlands, parks and ornamental gardens.   It is mycorrhizal with various broadleaf trees, notably Fagus and Quercus.   This is a thermophilous species, found mainly at lowland altitudes of 100m. or less.    It may be confused with R. globispora, although this has larger spores.    It was most recently recorded in October 2015 at the Cliburn Moss N.N.R. in Westmorland.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia and Spain.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as very rare and endangered and in Switzerland as being rare and vulnerable.

 

Russula melitodes   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 25 unique geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered though borderline between this category and vulnerable.
In Britain there are few records of the species.   In England most are limited to Hampshire, Kent and Sussex in the far south.   A few scattered records stem from Scotland as far north as Sutherland, with most arising from Invernesshire.  CATE2 holds a single record from Caernarvonshire in Wales.    It is found growing on soil chiefly though not exclusively in broadleaf woodlands with Quercus and Castanea.    It has also been recorded in coniferous plantations with Picea and Pinus.   The species occurs at a range of altitudes, from 10m to near 400m.   It was last recorded in September 2013 in Fishpool Valley in Herefordshire.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in Denmark, France, Slovakia and Spain.   In Germany, where very few sites are known, it is Red Data listed as being threatened with extinction.  In The Netherlands it is considered to be extremely rare with only one known site.   It appears to be equally rare in Norway.   There is, however, a view that it may be readily confused with R. integra.

 

Russula melliolens   Quél.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 320
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 32 unique geo-referenced sites (320 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species has been encountered infrequently and with very rare exceptions it is restricted to the southernmost counties of England, notably Buckinghamshire, Kent and Sussex.   It occurs wholly in broadleaf woodlands, heaths and parks, on soil, mainly in mycorrhizal association with Fagus and Quercus and to a lesser extent with Betula.   It is a species of lowlands rarely found at altitudes greater than 200m.   The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It was most recently recorded in July 2015 in the New Forest in Hampshire.
In Europe it is recorded rarely or very rarely in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as endangered.   It occurs at a few sites in southern Sweden where it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   It is also listed as vulnerable in Switzerland.

 

Russula melzeri   Zvára

Previous assessment: 1992: rare; 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 200
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 20 unique geo-referenced sites (200 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the sparse record of the species are mainly concentrated in the southeast of England, in the counties of Kent and Surrey, with a small number coming from Buckinghamshire and Gloucestershire.   There is an isolated record on CATE2 from Cumberland   It has not been recorded in Scotland.   There are two records from Gwent.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, parks and ornamental gardens, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with Castanea and Fagus, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.   It has not been recorded, however, since September 2011 when it was last found in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire.
In Europe it is recorded very rarely in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as endangered and in Switzerland as strongly endangered.   In The Netherlands it is Red Data listed as being on the verge of extinction, with one known site in the south of the country.


 

Russula minutula   Velen.

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species has been very rarely recorded.   CATE2 currently holds only 12 records.   Occurrence is also very scattered.   It has been recorded in the south of England, in Devon, Essex, Sussex and Wiltshire.   There are a few records from southern Scotland, in Berwickshire and Peeblesshire.   In Wales a single record has been obtained from Breconshire.   It occurs on soil and has been recorded in association with several broadleaf trees including Betula, Castanea, Fagus, Quercus and Tilia.   It is a species of lowlands, not found at altitudes exceeding 200m.   It has not been recorded, however, since September 2006, in South Devon.
In Europe it is recorded rarely or very rarely in Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Italy, Norway, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.  In Germany it is Red Data listed as endangered, though in a category that is not yet determined.  It is also Red Data listed as endangered in The Netherlands with only two known locations.   In Sweden and Switzerland it is Red Data listed as near threatened.  

 

Russula mustelina   Fr.

Previous assessment: 1992: EN;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 130
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 13 unique geo-referenced sites (130 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain there are very sparse records of the species, only 8 arising during the span of this assessment, all widely separated geographically.  A small number of collections have been made in the south of England and a few in the north of Scotland.  It has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs on soil, in woodlands and plantations, in association with coniferous trees, mainly Picea and Pinus.   It is also reported to occur with broadleaf trees.   It is found at variable altitudes from sea level up to 350 metres.   It has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It has not been recorded, however, since September 2007 in Hawley Woods in Hampshire.
In Europe it is recorded with variable frequency in more montane regions of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Spain.


 

Russula nana   Killerm.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 190
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 19 unique geo-referenced sites (190 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the sparse records of the species stem wholly from Scotland, most coming from the Highland regions of Aberdeenshire and Perthshire, extending as far north as the Shetlands.    It is found growing mainly on moorlands, on soil, in association with Betula, Persicaria and Salix, generally at altitudes in excess of 250m. and occasionally up to montane levels.   It was last recorded in September 2012, on Beinn Hutig in Sutherland.
In Europe it is recorded with variable frequency or rarity, generally at altitudes above the tree line in montane regions of the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Slovakia and Slovenia.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as extremely rare.   It occurs in more northerly montane parts of Sweden and is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula nauseosa   (Pers.) Fr.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  NT
Mature individuals: 1100
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 110 unique geo-referenced sites (1100 mature individuals).   A moderate population (Criterion D) assessed currently as near threatened.

In Britain there are infrequent, scattered records from the English counties, extending from Cornwall in the southwest to Northumberland in the northeast.   However the bulk of records stem from lowland areas of Scotland, most notably in Morayshire and Perthshire.   There are scattered records from Wales.   It grows on soil in mixed woodlands and coniferous plantations, chiefly in mycorrhizal association of Pinus and Picea, less commonly with other conifers.   It is most typically a species of lowlands, less frequently found at altitudes above 250m.   It was last recorded in October 2016 in Caithness.   The species has been subject to DNA profiling.

In Europe it is recorded uncommonly in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as vulnerable.

  


Russula odorata   Romagn.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 470
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 47 unique geo-referenced sites (470 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the species is almost entirely restricted to the southern and midland counties of England, with very occasional records extending as far north as midwest Yorkshire.   There are also, however, sparse records from the Scottish Highlands and from Wales.   It occurs on soil in woodlands, pastures, churchyards, parks and gardens, in association with a range of broadleaf trees, most commonly Quercus.   It is generally restricted to lowland altitudes not exceeding 150m. though very occasionally it has been recorded in uplands.    It has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It was last recorded in November 2014 in an urban park in Middlesex.
In Europe it is recorded more commonly in southerly latitudes, but its range extends through Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands and Slovakia.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as very rare and endangered.  In Switzerland it is also Red Data listed as endangered.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula pascua   (F.H. Møller & Jul. Schäff.) Kühner
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain records of the species are very sparse and are almost wholly restricted to the Scottish Highlands.   It occurs on grassy soil in moorlands, generally in association with Salix herbacea, occasionally with other host plants including Salix repens.   It is found at altitudes rarely below 300m. The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It was last recorded at Braemar in Aberdeenshire, in August 2012.
In Europe it is recorded in more montane regions of the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Norway, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden.   In Germany it is considered to be very rare.

 

 

Russula pectinata   Fr.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 230
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 23 unique geo-referenced sites (230 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered though close to being vulnerable.
In Britain the species has been recorded infrequently in several parts of England, most notably in Cornwall, Devon and Warwickshire.   CATE2 holds and isolated record from Rothiemurchus in Invernesshire.   There are no known records from Wales.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands in association with various broadleaf trees, generally at lowland altitudes that only rarely exceed 150m.   It was last recorded in August 2016 at Stourhead in Wiltshire.
In Europe it is recorded with variable frequency in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia and Spain.   It is particularly common in The Netherlands.   In contrast it is Red Data listed in both Germany and Switzerland as very rare and endangered.

 

Russula pelargonia   Niolle
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 370
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 37 unique geo-referenced sites (370 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records are largely confined to the southern counties of England, occasionally extending into the midlands.   There are isolated records from lowland areas of Scotland as far north as Caithness.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands and parklands, mainly in association with Fagus and Quercus, very rarely with coniferous trees, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 150m.    It was last recorded in July 2015 at Formby in Lancashire.   It has been subject to DNA sequencing.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Slovakia.  In Denmark it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.   In Germany it is also Red Data listed though with the level of risk as yet unquantified.

 

 

Russula persicina   Niolle

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 270
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 27 unique geo-referenced sites (270 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records of the species are both limited and scattered geographically.    The largest concentration has come from Ainsdale N.N.R. in Lancashire,   However the sparse records extend from Sussex on the south coast of England, as far north as Caithness in Scotland.   The species has not been recorded in Wales.   It occurs on soil, in association with broadleaf trees, chiefly Betula, Fagus and Salix, often in dune slacks in coastal regions.   It can, however, readily be confused with various other red-capped Russulas including R. emetica, R. rosea and R. sanguinaria.   It was last recorded in November 2015 at Ainsdale.
In Europe the species is recorded infrequently in the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Slovakia and Spain.

 

Russula plumbeobrunnea  Jurkeit & Schößler
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 70
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 7 unique geo-referenced sites (70mature individuals).   A very small, restricted population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered, close to being critically endangered.
In Britain records are very sparse and the species has only been known since 2011 when it was first identified on Hampstead Heath in Middlesex.   Records thus far are wholly restricted to counties in the southeast of England, most notably Middlesex.   It occurs on soil, in parklands and mixed woodlands, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with Quercus, but also occasionally with Carpinus, Fagus and Tilia.   It is a species of lowlands, at altitudes not exceeding 150m.   It was last recorded in December 2015 in the New Forest, in Hampshire.
In Europe it is very little recorded.   It is known with variable frequency in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Russia and Slovakia.  In The Netherlands it is extremely rare with only a handful of known locations.   The species may generally be under-reported.

 

 

Russula praetervisa  Sarnari
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 410
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 41 unique geo-referenced sites (410 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain records of the species are limited and the largest concentrations appear to come from the southern counties, ranging from Cornwall eastward to Middlesex.   Occasional records extend north to Westmorland and Durham.   Records from Scotland and Wales are very sparse.   It occurs mainly in grassy soils in open woodlands and parklands, in association with a range of chiefly broadleaf trees, favouring Quercus and less frequently with coniferous trees.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely encountered at altitudes exceeding 150m.   It was last recorded on the Osborne Estate on the Isle of Wight, in October 2015.  The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain.   Otherwise it appears to have received little attention to date.

 

Russula puellula   Ebbesen et al.

Previous assessment: 1992: VU;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 230
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 23 unique geo-referenced sites (230 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the sparse records are largely restricted to the southern counties of England, predominantly Buckinghamshire, Devon, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire.   CATE2 holds two records from Scottish lowlands and none from Wales.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, almost exclusively in mycorrhizal association with Fagus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely encountered at altitudes greater than 200m.   It was last recorded in September 2016 in south Devon.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in Belgium, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, southern Sweden.  In both the Czech Republic and Germany it is Red Data listed as being very rare and data deficient.   In Denmark it is Red Data listed as vulnerable and in The Netherlands as endangered, with only four known locations.

 

 

Russula pungens   Beardslee
Previous assessment: not assessed;
2017 assessment:  CR D
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D), perhaps regularly misidentified but  assessed currently as critically endangered.
In Britain the very sparse number of collections of the species within the period of this assessment have been widely dispersed from Dorset in the south of England, as far north as mid-Perthshire in Scotland.   There is a single record on CATE2 from Denbighshire in Wales.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, in association with broadleaf trees, notably Fagus.   Outside the range of this assessment it has been found at altitudes up to 350m.   Generally, however, it seems to prefer life at lower altitudes.   It was last recorded in 2010 at Corrie in Perthshire.   To a casual observer the species may appear to be another common re-capped Russula and it has certainly been confused with R. rubra.
In Europe the species has been recorded in Poland.  In Sweden there is some doubt about whether past collections were actually of R. rubra.   Otherwise it has either attracted very little interest or been identified erroneously as one of the more common species.

 

Russula raoultii   Quél.
Previous assessment: 1992: rare;
2017 assessment: EN D
Mature individuals: 250
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 25 unique geo-referenced sites (250 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered though borderline between this category and vulnerable.
In Britain the sparse records are widely distributed although the strongest concentration occurs in the southeastern counties of Kent, Surrey and Sussex.   Occurence thins out markedly further north in England.   Limited numbers of records come from Scotland as far north as Invernesshire and Wester Ross.   The species has been recorded in only one location in Wales, in Cwm Nedd.  It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands and parks, in mycorrhizal association with Fagus and, less frequently, other broadleaf trees.   It is a species of lowlands rarely occuring at altitudes greater than 200m.   It was last recorded in August 2010, at Ashridge Park in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe it is recorded at scattered locations in the Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Slovakia and Spain.   It is Red Data listed as being of least concern in Denmark and in southern Sweden.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as being data deficient.

 

Russula renidens   Ruots., Sarnari & Vauras

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 110
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 11 unique geo-referenced sites (110 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species is very rare.   CATE2 holds only twelve records since 1961.   Locations are widely scattered from Hampshire in the south of England, to the Scottish Highlands.   It grows on soil in association with various trees, broadleaf and coniferous, predominantly with Betula, but also with Corylus, Salix and Pinus.  It also occurs at a wide range of altitudes from near sea level to 400m.   It was last recorded in November 2014 in midwest Yorkshire.   It may, as in continental Europe, be confused with other species.
In Europe it is recorded in Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Slovakia, Sweden.   It is otherwise poorly reported, probably through confusion with other common red-capped species.

 

 

Russula rhodomelanea   Sarnari
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 80
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 8 unique geo-referenced sites (80 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the species is very rarely encountered.   CATE2 holds only nine records since 2004 and it appears to be entirely restricted to a few scattered locations the southeast of England, mainly in Kent.   It occurs on soil, in broadleaf woodlands, mainly with Quercus, very occasionally with Carpinus.   It is a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes in excess of 100m.   Paucity of records may, in part, be accounted for by confusion with other species.   It was last recorded in October 2013 on Hampstead Heath in Middlesex.  
In Europe it is recorded in France, Russula, Slovakia.   It is probably fairly widespread throughout lowland Europe, but can be difficult to identify and may frequently have been confused with other more common reddish-brown capped species.

 


 

Russula robertii   J. Blum
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 140
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 14 unique geo-referenced sites (140 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species is very rarely recorded.  In England, known sites are restricted to Cornwall, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire and Yorkshire.   Similarly, widely dispersed sites occur in Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   It is found on soil in mixed woodlands and heaths, generally in association with Betula, but also, less frequently, with Pinus.  It is known to occur at a range of altitudes from 40m. to 400m.   It was last recorded in October 2016 at Swinsty Reservoir in Yorkshire.   Note: some authorities place R. sphagnophila as a synonym of this species.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in Finland, France, Italy, Russia, Slovakia and Spain.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as being very rare and threatened with extinction.  In Norway it is Red Data listed as endangered, known only from about three locations in the south of the country.

 

Russula romellii  Maire

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 550
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 55 unique geo-referenced sites (550 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain a preponderance of records in England stems from the southwestern counties of Gloucestershire, followed by Devon and Herefordshire.   Smaller concentrations have been recorded in Kent and Sussex.   Further north, frequency is considerably reduced.   CATE2 holds limited numbers of records from Wales and Scotland.   The species is found on soil in broadleaf and mixed woodlands, almost entirely in association with Fagus and Quercus.   It occurs at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   It was last recorded in September 2016 at Birchill in Devon.
In Europe the species is found in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Russia, Slovenia, Spain and southern Sweden.   It is vulnerable across much of Europe since it is sought by foragers as a popular edible species.
 
 

Russula rutila   Romagn.
Previous assessment: 1992: VU; 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 60
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 6 unique geo-referenced sites (60 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the species is very rare.   CATE2 only holds 6 records of the species since 1970, wholly restricted to the southern counties of England.   It occurs on soil, mainly in broadleaf woodlands, in mycorrhizal association with Quercus, and at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 100m.   It has not been recorded since September 2006, when it was found at Scotney Castle in Sussex.   Its status may therefore need to be revised to critically endangered.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in temperate western Europe including France, Latvia and Slovakia.   It is Red Data listed as endangered in Denmark, The Netherlands and Norway.   In Germany it is considered to be extremely rare and is Red Data listed as critically endangered.   In Sweden is Red Data listed as near threatened.

 

 

Russula scotica    A. Pearson

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 90
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 9 unique geo-referenced sites (90 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species has been very rarely recorded, with only 9 records showing on CATE2 within the assessment period.   It has been recorded occasionally in England, in Hampshire and Herefordshire, though as its name suggests it is largely restricted in distribution to upland regions of Scotland.   It occurs on soil in woodlands and parklands, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with Betula, but it has also been recorded on one occasion, outside the date range of this assessment, with Pinus.    It is found at a range of altitudes from 30 m. to 800 m.   It was last recorded in August 2015, in Lanarkshire.
In Europe it is recorded recently after a period of absence in France and Greenland.   Aside from these sightings, little is known of its distribution in Europe.

 

 

Russula solaris   Ferd. & Winge
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 640
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 64 unique geo-referenced sites (640 mature individuals).   A fairly small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain it is recorded uncommonly and in England is mainly restricted to the southern counties, especially Devon, Hampshire, Kent and Sussex.   Its range extends further north spasmodically.   There are isolated records from Perthshire in Scotland.   It also occurs periodically in Wales.    It grows on soil in mixed and broadleaf woodlands, where it is in mycorrhizal association with Fagus and very occasionally with other broadleaf trees.   It is essentially a species of lowlands, rarely found at altitudes greater than 150m.   It was most recently recorded in October 2016 at Marlow in Buckinghamshire.
In Europe the species is recorded uncommonly in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia and Spain.   It is Red Data listed in Bulgaria as endangered, in the Czech Republic as vulnerable and in southern Sweden as near threatened, generally its status has come about as a result of excessive logging and tourism development.

 

Russula sphagnophila   Kauffman

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 280
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 28 unique geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain there are sparse records of the species.   In England occurence is widely dispersed from Dorset, Hampshire and Kent on the south coast, north to Yorkshire.   There are similarly scattered records from Scotland as far north as Morayshire and the Orkneys.   It has not been recorded in Wales.    It occurs on soil and as its name suggests, it is frequently found in Spaghnum bogs, mainly in association with Betula and Salix, put also rarely with Pinus.   It was last recorded in October 2013 on Strensall Common in Yorkshire.   Note: there are some authorities that place this species as a synonym of R. robertii.
In Europe it is recorded in Finland, France, Latvia, Slovakia and Spain.   In Germany it is regarded as very rare and Red Data listed as threatened with extinction.    In The Netherlands it is also rare and Red Data listed as endangered.  In the Czech Republic it is Red Data listed as vulnerable.  In Denmark, Norway and Sweden it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula subrubens   (J.E. Lange) Bon

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 210
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 21 unique geo-referenced sites (210 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species is rarely recorded, though widely distributed, from Kent and Sussex on the south coast of England, to the Orkneys and Caithness in the north of Scotland.   It has not been recorded in Wales.   it occurs on soil, chiefly in association with Betula, Quercus and Salix, in a diverse range of habitats and at various altitudes from close to sea level on an East Anglian fen, up to 150m.    There is also a doubtful montane record at 800m. in Westmorland.   The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It was last recorded in October 2013 on Woodwalton Fen in Huntingdonshire.
In Europe it is recorded infrequently in Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Slovakia.   It occurs fairly commonly in The Netherlands.    It is Red Data listed the Czech Republic as being data deficient and in Norway as being of least concern.

 

Russula torulosa   Bres.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species is rarely recorded though it is widely distributed, in areas ranging from Kent and Sussex on the south coast of England, to Morayshire in the north of Scotland.   It has been recorded in Wales in Gwent and on Anglesey.   It occurs on soil, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with various species of Pinus, generally in coniferous plantations and woodlands, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 270m.   It was last recorded in November 2016 at Sacriston in Durham.
In Europe it is generally regarded as a rare and endangered species with a restricted habitat.   It is, however, recorded with varying levels of frequency, more commonly where there are extensive pine forests.  It is found in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.   It is Red Data listed as vulnerable in Switzerland.

 

Russula veternosa  Fr.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 510
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 51 unique geo-referenced sites (510 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.
In Britain the preponderance of records stems from the southern and southwestern counties of England, extending from Hampshire, west into Cornwall, and north as far as Herefordshire.   Thereafter, occurrence thins out markedly with only a handful of records on CATE2 from Scotland and Wales.   It is found on soil in mixed woodlands, largely in mycorrhizal association with Fagus, followed by Quercus.   It rarely occurs at altitudes greater than 200m.   It was last recorded in September 2016 at Blair Atholl in Perthshire.
In Europe the species is found uncommonly, rarely, or very rarely in the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed in The Netherlands as vulnerable.

 

Russula vinosa  Lindblad

Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 480
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 48 unique geo-referenced sites (480 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.

In Britain the species is very largely confined to the Scottish Highlands, with only a scattering of records from England, and none currently from Wales.   It is found on soil, in coniferous woodlands, almost wholly in mycorrhizal association with Pinus sylvestris.   It was last recorded in October 2015 in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire.

In Europe the species is recorded with reasonable frequency in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain and Sweden.   It is regarded as a fairly sought-after edible species.


 

Russula violacea  Quél.

Previous assessment:  not assessed
2017 assessment:  VU D1
Mature individuals: 280
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 28 unique geo-referenced sites (280 mature individuals).   A small, scattered population (Criterion D) assessed currently as vulnerable.

In Britain the species is infrequently recorded and records are largely confined to the southern counties of England, notably Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire.   Scattered records occur elsewhere in England and extend as far north as Invernesshire in Scotland.   There are no records on CATE2 from Wales.   It occurs on soil in broadleaf woodlands and parklands, most freqently in association with Betula and Quercus.   It is generally confined to altitudes below 150m.   It has not, however, been recorded since October 2012 at Elstead in Surrey.

In Europe the species occurs rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Latvia, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed in Germany as being very rare and also in southern Sweden, though here it is categorised as being of least concern.

 

Russula viscida   Kudřna

Previous assessment: 1992: rare; 2006: NT;
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 160
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 16 unique geo-referenced sites (160 mature individuals).   A small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain, records of the species have been obtained almost wholly from Kent in the southeast of England, with very occasional records stemming from other southern and midland English counties.   It has not been recorded in Scotland or Wales.   It occurs on soil in mixed woodlands, churchyards and parklands, in association with both broadleaf and coniferous trees, most frequently with Quercus and Pinus.   It is a species of lowlands, restricted to altitudes not exceeding 200m.    The species has been subject to DNA sequencing.   It was most recently recorded in October 2010 at Westonbirt in Gloucestershire.
In Europe it is recorded rarely in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovenia.   It is Red Data listed in Bulgaria and The Netherlands as endangered and as being data deficient in Sweden.  In Denmark it is Red Data listed as being of least concern.

 

Russula xenochlora    P.D. Orton
Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  DD
Mature individuals: 50
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 5 unique geo-referenced sites (50 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as data deficient.
In Britain the species has been poorly recorded at a handful of locations, in northeast Yorkshire, the Scottish Highlands, and on Anglesey in Wales.   It occurs on soil, chiefly in mycorrhizal association with Pinus, at altitudes from 5m. to 300m.   It may frequently be overlooked or confused with other similar species, and clearly requires further investigation.   It was last recorded in August 2013 at Grantown-on-Spey in Morayshire. 
In Europe the species has attracted very little interest and also seems to have been poorly recorded.

 

 

Russula zvarae   Velen.

Previous assessment: not assessed
2017 assessment:  EN D
Mature individuals: 150
Estimated population: 1- 10 basidiomes recorded at each of 15 unique geo-referenced sites (150 mature individuals).   A very small population (Criterion D) assessed currently as endangered.
In Britain the species has been sparsely recorded, chiefly in the southern counties of England.   There is an isolated record from further north in Cheshire.   There is another isolated record from Edinburgh in Scotland.   There are no extant records from Wales.    It grows on soil in association with broadleaf trees, chiefly Fagus and Quercus, in woodlands, parks and gardens, at lowland altitudes rarely exceeding 200m.   It was last recorded in August 2015 in the Forest of Dean in Gloucestershire.
In Europe it is recorded in the Czech Republic, France, Italy, Slovakia, Spain and Sweden.   In The Netherlands it is reported to be extremely rare with one known location.   In Germany it is Red Data listed as extemely rare and critically endangered.   It is also Red Data listed in Denmark and Slovenia, though with the qualification that it may be under-reported.
 

 

 

10. Site Protection and Threats

Many of the sites where red-listed species are recorded are designated Sites of Special
National Nature Reserves (NNR), Local Nature Reserves (NR) or Country Parks (CP).   Illustration:   Tricholoma orirubens known from 1 NNR;  10 NRs; 3 CPs.   Even so, fungi are very rarely named among the special interest features and therefore usually only receive indirect protection, in part because hitherto there have not been any Red List assessments of their status available.

Threats to sites include:
• Habitat loss through development, tree felling (e.g. sweet chestnut).
• Appropriate management at inappropriate times such as carrying out mowing,
leaf blowing and mechanical bracken control during the sporophore producing season; use of tractors in wet conditions leading to localised ploughing and severing of mycorrhizal roots and mycelial cords and networks.
• Lack of management such as allowing coarser vegetation to encroach, e.g. bramble,
bracken, grasses which may inhibit sporophore formation and be detrimental to fragile mycelia over
a long period.
• Picking of edible (and non-edible) basidiomes.
• Trampling and compaction of mycelium and/or basidiomes resulting from poorly-sited
public activities such as mountain biking, car parking and organised events with
checkpoints/refreshment/toilet areas sited on species-rich areas of parkland.
• In some areas, animal activities such as trashing by wild boar in Forest of Dean

 


11. Recommendations for future recording of RDL species*

1. Estimated or actual basidiome numbers to be recorded as well as the number of discrete
patches of basidiomes under each individual host tree or at least 10 m. apart.
2. 8-digit (GPS) OS grid references to be taken, where possible, for each discrete fruiting patch.
3. Targeted surveys to be undertaken of all red-listed species concentrating initially on
those sites with the longest gaps since the last records were made.
4. Voucher specimens (even a small section of a single basidiome) to be deposited in
national fungaria (RBG, Kew and Edinburgh), in instances where verification is deemed necessary.
5. Literature used for identification to be cited when a record/voucher is documented to try
to future-proof the record against taxonomic change.
6. Information on exact locations of red-listed species to be sent to owners/managers of all
designated and otherwise protected sites.

* some of these proposals are of limited practicality in the field.   If they are applied purely to RDL species, and not to general collections, they are feasible but with the following caveats:

On any given foray, for a recorder to be endlessly taking 8-digit GPS references, is not realistic. Specimens are often given to the identifier by other members of the foray group, therefore exact locations are again a problem.  Species may not actually be identified as potential RDLs before microscopy is done, therefore exact locations of where they were found could be a problem. 

Most verification can now be carried out by local group recorders and sending off large numbers of voucher specimens is, again, impractical.   Above all, a clear process is essential for sending off voucher specimens.   Experience of many recorders, to date, is that they fall down a 'black hole'! 
Citing literature sources for e.g. 70+ species recorded on a foray is, likewise, a theoretical ideal, but largely not feasible in practice.   Citing literature for RDL species shouldn’t be an issue.  Citing literature for Hypholoma fasciculare will be!   Most recorders will have knowledge of a given species without any clear idea of the literature from which they first established its name.

 


13. Acknowledgements
Thanks go to the many UK recording groups and individual recorders that support the CATE2 database with their records and in particular the many that contribute their data via the online recording module, which saves the administration team a considerable amount of cleaning and correcting work.    These sources provide the foundation for all fungus Red List assessments.

The warm thanks of the team go to Professor David Hawksworth who, again, has voluntarily contributed an invaluable editorial input to this fourth Red Data assessment, making corrections to the text and advising of improvements.

We acknowledge the financial support for the work of the Trust by organisations including RSPB,  the National Trust and county wildlife trusts, as well as several individual volunteer donors.   We also acknowledge the considerable professional support in the IT development of CATE2, provided by our technology consultant, Geoff Hammond, much of it carried out on a voluntary basis.

 

14. References
Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels.  Version 4.0.
IUCN Species Survival Commission.   Revised by the National Red List working Group of the IUCN SSC Red List Committee.   IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, January 2010.

IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.   Version 3.1. Second Edition.
IUCN Species Survival Commission.   As approved by the 51st meeting of the IUCN Council, Gland, Switzerland, 9 February 2000.   IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 2012

Documentation Standards and Consistency Checks for IUCN Red List Assessments and Species Accounts.   Version 2 (September 2013).   IUCN Red List Unit, Cambridge, UK.   IUCN 2013.

Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.   Version 11 (February 2014).
Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.  2014.

Red Data conservation assessment of selected genera of fungi, based on national and local database records, fruit body morphology and microscopic anatomy.
By D. Bailey, J. Bailey, K. Davies, V. Davies,L. Hayward, P. Nichol & M. Jordan.   Published FCT 2015

Red Data List of Threatened British Fungi (2006).   A preliminary unpublished assessment prepared by the British Mycological Society.
By: S. Evans, A. Henrici, B. Ing.

A Provisional Red Data List of British Fungi.   Published in The Mycologist 1992.
By Bruce Ing, BMS Conservation Officerr, Chester.

Applying IUCN res-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. (2011).
By Anders Dahlberg and Gregory M. Mueller.
Published in Science Direct, Fungal Ecology 4 (2011) 147-162

Bibliography and sources of further information.

Bas, C., Kuyper, T.W., Noordeloos, M.E., & Vellinga, E.C. Flora Agaricina Neerlandica, Vol 3. CVRC Press 1990.
 
Breitenbach, J. & Kranzlin, F. Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 3. Lucerne 1991.

Breitenbach, J. & Kranzlin, F. Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 5. Lucerne 2000.
 
Breitenbach, J. & Kranzlin, F. Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 6. Lucerne 2005.

Buczacki, S. Collins Fungi Guide. London 2012.

Cetto, B. I funghi dal vero Trento. 1970-1991.
 
Enderle, M. Die Pilzflora des Ulmer Raumes.   Ulm2004.
 
Horak, E. Röhrlinge und Blätterpilze in Europa. 6th edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Munich 2005.

Knudsen H. & Vesterholt J. Funga Nordica (eds) 2nd. edition. 2 volumes. Copenhagen 2012.
 
Jordan M. Encyclopedia of Fungi of Great Britain and Europe. Revised edition. Frances Lincoln Ltd. 2004.

Kibby, G.  The Genus Russula in Great Britain with synoptic keys to species.  2nd. Edition.  2014.

Kuyper, T.W.  A Revision of the Genus Inocybe in Europe   Persoonia, Suppl. Vol. 3 pp. 1-247, 1986.

Legon N.W. & Henrici A. Checklist of the British & Irish Basidiomycota. Kew 2005.

Rayner, R.W.   Keys to the British Species of Russula.   British Mycological Society 1970. (Reprinted from the Society's Bulletins Vols. 2-4, 1968-70).

Robich, G.  Mycena d'Europa.  Vicenza 2007.

Stangl,  J.  Die Gattung Inocybe in Bayern.  Regensburg 1989.

Uzelac, B. Gljive Srbije, Izapadnog Balkana. BGV Logic 2009 (not English translation).

Wojewoda W. Checklist of Polish Larger Basidiomycetes Krakow 2003.


 

Contact details:

The Fungus Conservation Trust
Harveys
Alston
Axminster
Devon   EX13 7LG

01460 221788
mj@abfg.org

July 2017

 


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